«Theology of liberation» ant its conception of World history

Krylov Pavel Valentinovich, PhD in history, Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences(Petrozavodskaja ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197110)
pavel_kryloff@mail.ru

Krylov P. V. «Theology of liberation» ant its conception of World history, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 151–187.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00008

Language: Russian

The article analyses historiography characteristics of liberationists’ papers. «Theology of liberation» was shaped in 1970s and influenced by Marxism; its choice for the poor is caused by «social» reading of the Gospel. Theological speculations are based on «history». Historical Christ becomes a political figure and is contrasted to Western Christianity’s notion. Liberationists deliberately ideologize history, declaring the principle of impartiality to be bourgeois and thus untenable.

«Theology of liberation» favorably adapted an old idea of a special role of Latin America in the world history and transformed it into distinctive «Latin American socialism», that however differs from indigenismo. Dialogue with other non-Christian religions is popular. Latin America is the only Christian group of the so-called «Third World» nations, and this fact provides its special mission of mediation between Western theological tradition and most part of the non-Christian «Third World».

The author demonstrates historiographic terms are critically evaluated in liberationists’ language, especially those related to Spanish intrusion to Latin America after Columbus’s expedition. Such notions as political regime, liberty, development are also getting new connotations. Some theologians attempt to revise M. Luther’s view on the Peasants’ War, they emphasize the moderate attitude of U. Zwingli. The article names various pacific measures proposed for history teaching.

Deep impact of liberationist ideas on historical studies is guaranteed by mutual support among the liberationists, lack of criticism of both opponents and false teachings, furthermore, there are no efforts to have any hierarchy in the movement.

The author contrasts «theology of liberation» and neoliberal capitalism concluding that their discussion turns into the battle of ideological antagonists.

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Key words: «theology of liberation», liberationism, Latin America, L. Boff, G. Gutiérrez, K. Marx, M. Luther, pacifism, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/krylov-p-v-2012-en/

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Monasticism as social and cultural phenomenon

Irina Valerievna Aster, PhD in philosophy, assosiate professor, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Moika Embankment, dom 48, korpus 20a, St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186)
iaster@inbox.ru

Aster I. V. Monasticism as social and cultural phenomenon, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp.50–60

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00010

Language: Russian

The article observes the purpose of monastic service and various aspects of singleness (chastity, continence, celibacy). Y. Lotman in his papers clarifies the differences between the perspectives of «Ego-Id» (with «Id» implying the outer world) and «Ego-Ego». The author notes taken as an ideal model monastic service is efficient for deeper world perception and creative activities on account of less need of interpersonal relationships and social stereotypes susceptibility.

The article focuses on monastic functions performed for centuries: worldview, ecology, integration, ethics, communication, information and education, economics, social work, art and aesthetics, spiritual healing. The author maintains monasticism is of cultural character, since all the above functions are commonly attributed to human culture as such.

In the matter of education, the author points to a highly successful model «mentor-disciple». Personal example was of primary importance in such kind of relationships; the modern educational system adopts it to a degree, wherefore it is necessary to avoid didactic approach and «bring along a likeness» instead, that is personal dignity of everyone. Social work of the Russian Orthodox Church should be determined by the proper intentions; some of its forms are mentioned in the article.

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Key words: monk, monasticism, Y. Lotman, Eastern Orthodoxy, Russian Orthodox Church, Catholicism, Buddhism

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/aster-i-v-2012-en/

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«The Religious Sense» by Luigi Giussani: historical and theological context

Roman Konstantinovich Sheshenin, PhD-student, SS. Cyril and Methodius Theological Institute of Post-Graduate Studies (Pyatnitskaya str. 4/2 b.1, Moscow, Russia, 115035)

shesheron@rambler.ru

Sheshenin R. K. «The Religious Sense» by Luigi Giussani: historical and theological context, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 68–90.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00004

Language: Russian

This article observes the work of the Italian priest Luigi Giussani (1922–2005) in the context of the theological discourse of the 20th century Catholic world. The dispute on the so-called «Theology of supernatural» arose in the period of the second scholasticism and regained its relevance in connection with the «anti-modernist» policy of the Catholic Church in the 19th century. The concept of «natura pura», as the main position of the Neo-Thomism, came under criticism by the French theologians of the «return to source». The article illustrates the dynamics of research on this topic starting with philosophical research by Maurice Blondel and theological «discoveries» of Henri de Lubac on the experience of the Milan priest L. Giussani at the Seminary Venegono and at the Berchet Lyceum (classical high school) in Milan. Understanding the «religious sense» as totality of needs and obviousness that accompany the person in comparison with all his things, he «expands» the boundaries of the mind to its «openness» to the Mystery. The article marks the Giussani’s thoughts in connection with the works of Blondel, Lubac, Colombo, Corti, Fabro, Montini. The conclusion points to the original provisions of Giussani on the issue of «theology of supernatural» which are associated with his activity in the student movement.
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Key words: Luigi Giussani, theology of supernatural, Catholicism, M. Blondel, Henri de Lubac, Montini, neo-thomism, new theology, theological anthropology, the Second Vatican Council, anthropological turn

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/isaev-2014-en/

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