Church in defense of Family Strategies: Vidimus Nicolas de Ripemont, Abbot Gembloux,from the collection of N. P. Likhachev

Ekaterina Igorevna Nosova, PhD in History, scientific researcher, Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Petrozavodskaja ulitsa, dom 7, Saint-Petersburg, 197110, Russia)
katerinanossova@gmail.com

Nosova E. I. 1, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. .

DOI:

Language: Russian

The article presents the publication and commentary of the vidimus of Nicolas de Ripemont, abbot of Gembloux (Namur). The diploma is kept in the archives of the Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The document belonged to the collection of Nikolai Likhachev (1862–1936).
Vidimus dated by 1389 confirms the earlier donation made in 1358 byRobert of Namur, lord of Beaufort-sur-Meuse and Ronay. According to hischarter, he obliged to pay the rent paied previously by one of his vassalsWalter de Seilles. The article reviews the historical content and physicalparticularities of the document, and attempts to answer the question whythe abbot of Gembloux acts as guarantor of the authenticity of the charter.This may be due to the fact that abbot Nicolas de Ripemont came fromthe same family as the rent holders. Thus, by confirming the letter of Robert of Namur, Nicolas de Ripemont not only consolideted the traditionalrole of the Church as a center of power and literacy, but he also protectedfamily interests.
The study was supported by a grant from the Russian Foundation for BasicResearch 18-00-00292 (as part of COMFI № 18-00-00429 (K)).

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Key words: Abbey Gembloux, vidimus, Church, N. P. Likhachev (1862–1936), Robert of Namur

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/nosova-2020-en/

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The abdication of Margrave George Friedrich of Baden-Durlach — an act of «political prudence»?

Michael Roth assistant lecturer, Department of History, Heidelberg University (Grabengasse 3–5, aud. 229, Heidelberg, Germany, 69117)
michael.roth@zegk.uni-heidelberg.de

Roth M. The abdication of Margrave George Friedrich of Baden-Durlach — an act of «political prudence»?, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 254–269.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00013

Language: Russian

The study focuses on territories outside the Kurpfalz border. The first decades of the 17th century were in fact very turbulent not only for Kurpfalz, but also for the small duchy of Baden-Durlach: this time was coloured by religious confrontations, and especially the Thirty Years War. The fate of the famous Heidelberg «winter king» and his family prevails in the images of the first years of the war, although other rulers of lands in the south-west of the Empire was also forced to accept the challenge of war. An example is the fate of Margrave George Friedrich, who ruled the Baden-Durlach Margrave and sought, being a strictly Lutheran prince, to influence the outcome of the just begun Thirty Years War. Militarily, during the Battle of Wimpfen, he was as unsuccessful as his Heidelberg associate, however, is a wonderful example of political farsightedness. Having renounced the power given to him in favour of his son, he tried to keep Baden out of the war until the moment when he personally entered into it. The act of princely renunciation of power is unusual in itself, so the author in addition to external circumstances and the process of renunciation, also investigates the issue of theological premises that explain this renunciation, as well as political prudence in the framework of modern political theorizing about the resignation.

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Key words: political act, Baden, confessionalization, Protestant union, power, church

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/roth-2019-en/

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Who are the judges? Charter of the King of France John II Good in favor of the ca thedral of Laon (1352)

Ekaterina Igorevna Nosova PhD in History, Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Petrozavodskaja ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197110)
katerinanossova@gmail.com

Nosova E. I. Who are the judges? Charter of the King of France John II Good in favor of the Cathedral of Laon (1352), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 232–259.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00012

Language: Russian

The article deals with relationships between secular and ecclesiastical powers in medieval France in the 14th century. The king’s John II letter to the Cathedral of Laon served as a basis for this case study. This document is kept in the archives of the Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The document comes from the collection of Nikolai Petrovich Likhachev (1862–1936). The article gives a detailed analysis of its content and form. The problem which considered in the article, was spread throughout over medieval Europe. The form of the letter corresponds to the traditions of the French royal chancellery of the Late Middle Ages except the combination of languages — Latin and French. Generally, coexistence of the two languages was quite normal during 14–15th centuries. But in most cases one charter was entirely cited in the other. In the charter from Likhachev’s collection one part does not exist without the other: the Latin part has no content, and the French part has no legal force. Ecclesiastical authority is represented by the catholic chapter of Laon, in whose favor a dispute was settled. The decision of royal Parliament based rather on principles of a relationship between the bishop and the cathedral developed in this city, than on royal own ordinances. It should be stressed that the analyzed document shows the multifaceted relationship between the spiritual and ecclesiastical authorities in medieval France, and puts out the low efficiency of using of same sources in juridical practice.

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Key words: France, law, conflict of jurisdictions, Church, cathedral (Laon), chapter, N. P. Likhachev (1862–1936)

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/nosova-2018-en/

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Review on: “Contemprorary religious problems of the region of specialization. Religion and Church in the Nordic countries: A learner’s guide” (Saint-Petersburg, 2013) by V. I. Musaev

Pavel Valentinovich Krylov, PhD in history, leading researcher, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of History (Petrozavodskaya ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, 197110)
pavel_kryloff@mail.ru

Krylov P. V. Review on: “Contemprorary religious problems of the region of specialization. Religion and Church in the Nordic countries: A learner’s guide” (Saint-Petersburg, 2013) by V. I. Musaev, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 296–302.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00003

Language: Russian

The recent work by V. I. Musaev on Church history of Nordic countries is critically reviewed. The text comments on the author’s methodology, views and logic, markering out positive as well as negative point of the leaner’s guide. Having done several critic comments, the reviewer, however, describes the book as worth reading.

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Key words: Nordic countries, confession, Church

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/krylov-2013-en/

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On the question of several religious terms

Anatoliy Kirillovich Pogasiy, PhD in history, professor, Kazan Institute, Eastern Academy of Economics, Law and Humanities (ulica Jurnalistov, dom 6a, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420029)
kazan_prihod@mail.ru

Pogasiy A. K. On the question of several religious terms, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 35–49.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00007

Language: Russian

Specifics of religious terminology is that it is called in the field of human consciousness and the world comprehended by human intelligence to fix concepts phenomenal that can’t be realized by human reason. The article is devoted to a problem of interpretation of some Christian terms.

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Key words: religion, Christianity, term, theology, Church

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/pogasiy-a-k-2012-en/

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John Bergius, a prominent figure of the Brandenburg Reformation

Mihkail Petrovich Beliaev, PhD in history, assistant professor, Russian University of cooperation, Faculry of Law (ulitsa Very Voloshinoy, 12/30, Mytishchi, Russia, 141014)

babek-han@mail.ru

Beliaev M. P. John Bergius, a prominent figure of the Brandenburg Reformation, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 260–283.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00013

Language: Russian

The Second Reformation in Brandenburg seriously differed from similar transformations in the other subjects of the Empire. The subjects of the Elector, John Sigismund, being Lutherans, were not compelled to switch to Calvinism, because Hohenzollern led tolerant policy. The article studies the role of John Bergius, who was a prominent ideologue of Calvinism and the leading court preacher of the Brandenburg Electors. Having received good education abroad, he laterly wrote many works on theology as an adherent of Irenism. The young theologian took part in the struggle against the Lutheran theologians and become the closest adviser of the Electors on religious matters. He defended the ideas of common root of Protestan theology and was for coorepation between the Lutherans and the Evangelists before the face of the Counter-reformation. The Brandenburg preacher developed the «constitutional theory of resistance», which justified the Emperor’s action in cooperation with the Catholic League as unleagel. The author shows that in these circumstances Lutheran theologians agreed to meet with Calvinist colleagues in Leipzig, during the Protestant princes convention. At this colloquium, thanks to the position of Bergius, it become possible to reach agreement on the most of issues. His late activity is also of high interest, because in 1630s he participated in the development of a new structure for the Brandenburg Church. Since 1640 Bergius being an adviser of th Elector Frederick William and participates in the colloquium in Thorne. He also was one of the authors of the final documents of the conferences in Leipzig and Thorne, which together with Confessio Sigismundi formed the official position of the Reformed Church of Brandenburg.
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Key words: Brandenburg, Calvinists, Reformed, Lutheran, Preacher, Church, Reformation

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/beliaev-2017-en/

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Die lutherische Kirche in der Gemeinschaft der anderen christlichen Konfessionen und der anderen Religionen

Rainer Stahl, general secretary of Martin Luther Bund (Habichtstrasse 14 A, Erlangen, Germany, D-91056)

rs@martin-luther-bund.de

Stahl R. Die lutherische Kirche in der Gemeinschaft der anderen christlichen Konfessionen und der anderen Religionen, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 42–68.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00004

Language: German

The article describes specifics of the Lutheran identity, mainly relying on the vision of Luther. The author emphasizes conservatism and orthodoxy of the Lutheran Church, drawing parallels between the preaching of Luther and the content of Orthodox icons. Within the Reformation the Rainer Stahl Die lutherische Kirche in der Gemeinschaft… 61 Lutheran tradion was developed, that includes strong attitute to science and education as well as availibility of faith and salvation in ordinary life. However, the relation with other religions is the most accurate for the determination of specifics of this Christian community. The author stresses differences in approaching to the Old Testament by Lutherans and Judaismbelievers. Relations with Islam formed in comprehensive historical situation, when the conquest of the Holy Roman Empire by Turkish troops was a real threat. However, Luther and his fellows devoted a lot of time translating the Quran into German and Latin, and the acquaintance with another tradition was the first step to dialog. The main thesis of the article can be reduced to an understanding of the Lutheran Church as a continuation of the Old Christian Church, that at the same time is open to dialogue (especially with the religions of the Old Testament) and development.
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Key words: Martin Luther, Lutherans, Church, Christ

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/rainer-2014-en/

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People of God: historical and theological perspectives

Juha Pihkala Doctor in theology, docent of dogmatics, University of Helsinki (Universitetsgatan, 4, Helsingfors, Finland, 00100), juha.pihkala@jpihkal.pp.fi

Pihkala J. People of God: historical and theological perspectives, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2016, vol. 5, pp. 18–33.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2016-00002

Language: English

The article discusses the term «People of God» and its theological interpretations. The question is important for theology of religion in the Jewish-Christian context, because this picture is both joining and separating these religions. «People of God» is one of the central terms portraying the Jewish faith-community, but also the Christianity has espoused it, believing to be its successor.
The early Christianity felt, that Christ fulfilled the messianic promises of the Old Testament: in him the People of God got its new King from stock of David. The Jewish community didn’t accept this interpretation. Therefore, the raising Christianity had to detach from them, but not from the Old Testament and the idea of the continuity of the People of God. Paul, for instance, emphasizes, that all the promises given to Jewish people in the Old Testament are still valid. Nonetheless, some other interpretations occurred, which contended quite the opposite: when the Church was born, the Jewish people became derivative. Many conflicts in history had been undoubtly promoted by these interpretations.
The author stresses, that it is not possible to give reasons for such kind of «replacement theology». Even though Christians and Jews now are separated, the one has not substituted the other. There is only one People of God, but it went on two distinct roads. In this context this article also discusses the status of so called Messianic Jews.
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Key words: Сhurch, ecclesiology, images of Church, replacement theology, theology, holocaust, continuity

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/pihkala-j-2016-en/

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Truth and tolerance: what are the borders of the acceptable plurality in Christian faith?

Juha Pihkala Doctor in theology, docent of dogmatics, University of Helsinki (Universitetsgatan, 4, Helsingfors, Finland, 00100), juha.pihkala@jpihkal.pp.fi

Pihkala J. Truth and tolerance: what are the borders of the acceptable plurality in Christian faith?, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 44–67.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00003

Language: English

This article, based on the lecture read in St. Petersburg (24.10.2017), at first discusses the Christian concept of truth. It differs from the philosophical concept of truth, which relies on the commonly accepted knowledge-based arguments. The Christian concept of truth relies on events experienced in history whose existential meaning, it’s most important identity, is recorded in the rule of the faith – regula fidei. Within the core domains of the rule of faith, the Christian concept of truth does not know the tolerance liked by modern thinking. It is, however, also necessary for the Church mission to interpret the rule of the faith in different cultures in their own language and to apply practices that differ from the original. This means: tolerance also is needed. Religious freedom is necessary concerning the assumption of the faith. In the history, however, this freedom has been damaged, causing great harm. When Constantine used the Christian faith as an ideological creator of the unity of the state, he still did not change the old Roman law of religion: the religion of the ruler was also during the Christian era necessarily the religion of the empire. This principle has been followed until the new era (cuius regio, eius religio).
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Key words: Confessio Augustana, Luther, Church, creed, confession, Reformation, ecumenism

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/pihkala-2017-en/

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