Spiritual and Literary Precursors of Christian Writers in Roman North Africa: Urban Specifics

Alekaey Vital’evich Kargaltsev phd in history, senior lecturer, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (R. Moika nab., 48/20a, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 191186)
akargaltsev@herzen.spb.ru

Kargaltsev A. V. Spiritual and Literary Precursors of Christian Writers in Roman North Africa: Urban Specifics, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2023, vol. 12, pp. 202–215.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2023-12-202-215

Language: Russian

The article is devoted to the analysis of the Greco-Roman philosophical and literary tradition, which is based on the largest Christian writers of Roman North Africa: Tertullian, Cyprian of Carthage and Arnobius as well as the educational system of Carthage in the 3rd century. Based on the material studied, it is concluded that, firstly, it is appropriate to speak not only about the broad regional specifics along the Greek EastLatin West line, but also about the features of the urban environment. It can be noted that in the study of the education system in the Roman Empire, Carthage is traditionally in the shadows, but the city had a strong rhetorical school that trained personnel for the entire region. Secondly, in the works of African Christian writers there is a certain ideological unity, which can be described as a commitment to a materialistic picture of the world, close to the philosophy of stoicism, which was based, it seems, on the unity of the educational space to which Christian authors belonged. At the same time, they themselves differ in origin and social status, their characters and literary temperament are different, their attitude to Greco-Roman philosophy is different as well as their interest in it. At the same time, the author of the article believes that the circle of their spiritual and literary predecessors generally coincides. These are the classics of Roman rhetoric — Varro, Cicero, Quintilian, and others, which to a certain extent leveled these differences. The influence of classical rhetoric can also be found in Christian criticism of traditional Roman paganism, which was a distinctive feature not only of church preaching, but also of individual philosophical schools.

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Key words: early Christianity, Roman Empire, Carthage, education

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/en-kargaltsev-2023/

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Ulrich Zwingli’s «Brief Instruction» on Christian Education and Upbringing: Introductory Article, Translation and Commentary

Maria Alexandrovna Polyakova doctor of pedagogy, director, Kaluga State Universtity named after K. E. Tsiolkovsky, Institute of History and Law (Lenina str., 83, Kaluga, Russia, 248001)
mariap71@rambler.ru

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie PhD in History, research fellow, Higher School of Economics, Institute of Education, (Potapovskiy per., 16, bld. 10, Moscow, Russia, 101000)
zlure@hse.ru, zinaidalourie@gmail.com

Polyakova M. A., Lurie Z. A. Ulrich Zwingli’s «Brief Instruction» on Christian Education and Upbringing: Introductory Article, Translation and Commentary, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2023, vol. 12, pp. 302–327.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2023-12-302-327

Language: Russian

This publication contains the text of Ulrich Zwingli’s «Brief Instruction» written in 1523 and undergone several reprints. This important source for the pedagogical thought of the Reformation era has not been translated into Russian, and in general is almost unknown to the reader. The preface to the text gives an overview of the circumstances surrounding the creation of the text, including Zwingli’s personal situation and marriage to the mother of his student Herold Mayer, and the beginning of educational reform in Zurich. Then the sources of Zwingli’s pedagogical ideas are considered, and a general description of the structure of the work and the main content is given. The text of the «Instruction» reflects its time, first of all, by abundant biblical quotations, references to which mainly constitute the commentary.

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Key words: Reformation, education, school, Münster, Zurich, Glarean, Myconius, Herold Mayer, Anna Reinhard

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/en-poliakova-lurie-2023/

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About the need of theological approach to ethical issues in biomedicine and biomedical technologies

Dmitry Viktorovich Mikhel,
Oleg Nickolaevich Reznik
Doctor of Philosophy, professor, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (Vernadskogo pr. 82, Moscow, Russia, 119571) Leading research fellow, Institute of World History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Leninsky pr. 32a, Moscow, Russia, 119334)
dmitrymikhel@mail.ru
Doctor of Medicine, professor First St. Petersburg State Medical University (L’va Tolstogo ulitsa, 6–8, St. Petersburg, Russia,197022) St. Petersburg Research Institute of Emergency Medicine (Budapeshtskaya ulitsa, 3, St. Petersburg, Russia, 192242)
onreznik@gmail.com

Mikhel D. V., Reznik O. N. About the need of theological approach to ethical issues in biomedicine and biomedical technologies, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2022, vol. 11, pp. 46–79.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2022-11-46-78

Language: Russian

Domestic and foreign experience in the development of biomedicine shows that the practice of using blood, organs and tissues of some people to save others has a long and complicated history, which is invariably accompanied by serious moral questions and the search for ethically acceptable forms of regulation. The emergence of cellular technology and regenerative medicine has once again raised the question of the socially acceptable way of developing this promising field of biomedicine. Is it acceptable for further biomedical progress to use embryonic tissues from which valuable cellular preparations can be derived? Drafting laws regulating we must appeal to the values of Christian morality and the potential of theological knowledge, which returns public consciousness to the higher meanings lost in the previous period of development of Russian society. This is especially relevant for the system of higher secular education, and especially medical education, which in the post-Soviet period of its history has been at the mercy of utilitarianism and other forms of secular ethics.

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Key words: stem cells, human embryos, Christian morality, theology, education

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/en-michel-reznik-2022/

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Brief Catechism of Johann Brenz: History of Creation and Translation

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie, Mariya Aleksandrovna Polyakova PhD in History, assistant lecturer, Institute of foreign modern languages, St. Petersburg State University (Universitetskaia nab., 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034) PhD in Pedagogy, assistant professor, Leading Analyst, Russian Academy of Education, Education Development Center (Pogodinskaya st., 8, Moscow, Russia, 119121)
z.lurie@spbu.ru, marussia71@yandex.ru

Mariya Aleksandrovna Polyakova PhD in Pedagogy, assistant professor, Leading Analyst, Russian Academy of Education, Education Development Center (Pogodinskaya st., 8, Moscow, Russia, 119121)
marussia71@yandex.ru

Lurie Z. A., Polyakova M. A. Brief Catechism of Johann Brenz: History of Creation and Translation, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2022, vol. 10, pp. 318–335.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2022-10-318-335

Language: Russian

This publication examines the Brief Catechism of Johann Brenz, a prominent figure in the Lutheran Reformation. His Questions on the Christian Faith was the second most common after Luther’s catechism, although its having a number of significant differences. The translation of the most famous edition of 1535 is presented with to the Russian reader, with the introductory article also introducing a short biography of Brenz and the history of the creation of the catechism. The relationship between the school reform carried out by the reformer and the content of the catechetical instruction is shown within the city space of Gall. In the content of Brenz’ Catechism, the starting point of instruction is the sacrament of baptism, while the Eucharist is the goal of Christian teaching.

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Key words: Reformation, schools, urban Reformation, education, educational texts and practices, Gall, Heidelberg, Swabia, charter

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/lurie-polyakova-2022-en/

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