William of Pagula and ideas on the Sacrament of the Eucharist

Sergey Sergeevich Lazarev Master Student, Saint-Petersburg State University, Institute of History, (Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
lazarevsergey01@gmail.com

Lazarev S.S. William of Pagula and Ideas on the Sacrament of the Eucharist, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 16–31.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00009

Language: Russian

The liturgical activities of parish clergy have traditionally focusedon church services. Only at the turn of the 11–12th centuries, medievalintellectuals began to make works that were designed specifically to helpthe parish priests. In the 14th century, pastoral leadership for priests wereinstructions and treatises in Latin, such as «The Priest’s Eye» by Williamof Pagula. The work of William of Pagula during the late Middle Agesremained the most popular pastoral manual to the duties and servicesof the parish clergy. It was of exceptional importance as a pastoral manualto the conduct of confession, especially in term of interrogation, forgivenessof sins and choice of punishment for the penitent. In addition, this manualcontained a fairly complete and simple instruction to medieval Englishman on the sacrament of the Eucharist. An explanation of the sacramentof the Eucharist was required so that parish priests could fix the practiceof communion with only bread in mental attitudes of parishioners, whichbegan to be applied from the 12th century. Nevertheless, the new practiceof communing the laity under one kind, and the clergy under both arouseddiscontent among some of the parishioners, which served as one of the catalysts for the emergence of reformist movements. The Catholic Churchfinally confirmed the church custom of the communion of the laity underone kind only in the 16th century at the Council of Trent.

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Key words: William of Pagula, the Eucharist, «The Priest’s Eye», parish priests, late medieval England

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lazarev-2020-en/

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The Formation of the Evangelical Confession in Germany: Melanchthon and religious polemics in the middle of the 16th century

Natal’ya Aleksandrovna Berezhnaya PhD of History, senior lecturer, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
n.berezhnaya@spbu.ru, natalialandi@mail.ru

Berezhnaya N. A. The Formation of the Evangelical Confession in Germany: Melanchthon and religious polemics in the middle of the 16th century, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 216–253.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00012

Language: Russian

The present article examines the formation of the evangelical denomination in Germany for fifteen years after the death of Martin Luther. The author analyses the relationship and dogmatic disagreements between  Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, Melanchthon’s activities as a leader of German Protestants, his attempts to create a new formula of dogma, which was to unite the supporters of the two versions of the Augsburg Confession, unaltered and altered, and the Gnesio-Lutherans. In addition, the author notes the communication of Melanchthon with the princely elite of Protestant Germany. These communications are of interest, since it was the authority of the imperial princes that helped the theologian lead the Evangelical Church. The main subject of internal protestant discussions in the second half of the 1540–1550s were the adiaphora and the Eucharist. The GnesioLutherans accused Melanchthon of «cryptocalvinism» because of the peculiarities of his views on the Eucharist, and also because of his unwillingness to refuse Calvin in response to the proposal to unite the evangelical and reformist confession. However, Luther himself did not require his comrade to renounce his views, that is, he did not consider them an error. GnesioLutheran theologians would have found it difficult to accuse Melanchthon of apostasy if not for his position on the issue of adiaphora and for the support of the Elector Moritz of Saxony.

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Key words: Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Evangelical Church, Gnesio-Lutherans, Reformed tradition, Adiaphora, Eucharist

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/berejhnaya-2019-en/

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