Acta Maximiliani. Introduction, Russian translation and commentary

Aleksey Dmitrievich Panteleev PhD in History, assosiate professor, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Universitetskaya naberezhnaya, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
a.panteleev@spbu.ru; alpant@hotmail.com

Panteleev A. D. Acta Maximiliani. Introduction, Russian translation and commentary, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 240–262.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00017

Language: Russian

The publication is the Russian translation of the Early Christian Hagiographical text Acta Maximiliani (BHL 5813) with introduction and commentaries. This is a story about the events that took place on March 12, 295 in the African city of Teveste, where Fabius Victor and his son Maximilian, who refused to enlist in the Roman army, were brought to the court of proconsul Dion. Despite the persuasion of the proconsul, Maximilian did not change his decision and was sentenced to a death. Sometimes this text is viewed as a manifesto of early Christian pacifism. The main problem of Introduction is issue of dating and authenticity of the text. The analysis of historical realities (temonarius, signaculum, depositio ad sanctos etc.) and inconsistencies in the text allows us to make conclusion that the basis of the Acta is the genuine record of the trial, but the text contains clear signs of editing, one or more. Acta was greatly influenced by the writings of Cyprian of Carthage. First of all, we have the pointing to the burial place of Maximilian at the grave of Cyprian, and then there are several parallels with the works of the Carthaginian bishop. We think, it’s possible to attribute Acta to the circle of North African martyrdoms that experienced the influence of Cyprian’s writings and stories about his life and death. The text is translated from H. Musurillo, The Acts of the Christian Martyrs and A. Bastiansen, Atti e passioni dei martiri.

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Key words: martyrdom, hagiography, acts, Maximilian

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/panteleev-2013-en/

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The martyrdom of St. Stephan in Medieval and. Early Modern hagiography

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie, doctor of History, assistant lecturer, Faculty of foreign languages, St. Petersburg State University (Universitetskaia nab., 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
z.lurie@spbu.ru

Lure Z. A. The martyrdom of St. Stephan in Medieval and. Early Modern hagiography, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 185–206.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00001

Language: Russian

Despite the rather late development of the cult of the first martyr at the end of the 3rd – 4th centuries, it occupied an unusually important role in Christian rhetoric as an imitator of Christ. The article analyzes the references to the first deacon of the apologists and the early fathers of the Church (Clementus, Irenaeus, Augustine, etc.). In the medieval period, the regional traditions of veneration, on the one hand, and, on the other, the widespread presence of his worship in temples as one of the first deacons can’t be led to the single tendency of perception of the image. One of the recurring motives was the opposition of Stephen to the Jewish antagonists. During the Reformation, this antagonism was transferred to the realities of confessional confrontation, but the interest in the martyr was not great and even the influence of the Catholic renewal had a very limited effect on the iconography of Stefan. In turn, for the late Protestantism of the 1560–1590s. it was Stefan who turned out to be an iconic figure. The author examines the reasons for the popularity of the plot, analyzing the conflicts inherent in the book “Acts”, and illustrates the perception of the plot in the Lutheran tradition on the example of the tragedy of Melchior Neukirch in 1592, which completed a series of dramatic adaptations. The writer raised a number of extremely relevant topics for his time: the problem of tyranny and punishment of tyrants “for audacity”, and, equally, developed  the concept of an ideal world order, reflected also at the family level. No less significant theologian in the drama was the preaching of Christ.

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Key words: Stephan, hagiography, Reformation, Counterreformation, confessionalisation, Melchior Neukirch, theater, drama

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2013-en/

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The martydom of Potamiaena and Basilides (Eus. HE, VI, 5)

Aleksey Dmitrievich Panteleev, PhD in history, assistant professor, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya linia, dom 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
a.panteleev@spbu.ru
alpant@hotmail.com

Panteleev A. D. The martydom of Potamiaena and Basilides (Eus. HE, VI, 5) , Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 100–115.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00002

Language: Russian

The story about young woman Potamiaena, who lived in Alexandria, and the warrior Basilides was told by Eusebius of Caesarea in Church History (6, 5) and Palladius in Lausiac History (3). There’re some differences between these versions in the dating and circumstances, and Palladius said nothing about Basilides. Despite Palladius’ indication of the IV century, we think that both authors reported on the same Alexandrian martyr of the beginning of the 3rd century. These events could occur between 206 and 210; this is indicated by the name of the prefect of Egypt. The cruel execution of Potamiaena — her body was burned with boiling tar — although not characteristic for early martyrdoms, but it is not impossible. Neither Potamiaena nor Basilides were directly connected with Origen, but Eusebius included this story in his narrative about the youth of Alexandrian theologian. Particular attention was paid to the history of Basilides’ conversion and its comparison with a similar story in the Martyrdom of Perpetua. The history of Basilides’ conversion under the influence of a dream, when Potamiaena appeared to him, looks quite organic not only for the Christian, but also for the pagan tradition of that time. The voluntary confession of Christianity by Basilides wasn’t indicate of Montanism. This story is the first significant testimony of the martyrs of Alexandria and one of the few authentic narratives of the persecution of Christians before the start of the persecution of Decius.

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Key words: early Christianity, hagiography, persecutions, Alexandria, Eusebius of Caesarea

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/panteleev-a-d-2012-en/

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The Donatist hagiography and the Roman state

Andrei Leonidovich Mamontov PhD-student, the Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya linia, 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034) , almamontov1992@mail.ru

Mamontov A. L. The Donatist Hagiography and the Roman State, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 126–149.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00007

Language: Russian

With the Donatist hagiography being not well studied yet, especially in the Russian scholarship, the article attempts to fill the gap. Seven martyr stories are considered in the research, and some of them prove to be spuriously attributed to the dissident church (especially, The Passion of Cyprian). Other texts, undoubtedly Donatist, were written not by eye-witnesses (except, possibly, The Passion of Marculus), but after the actual martyrdom. These texts are notable for their fervent polemics against the Catholic Church («traitors») and the cruel assistant, the Roman state.
The author is particularly interested in the polemics against the Roman Empire. After the Constantinian revolution the pagan state turned into a Christian one, therefore we might expect from believers, even from Donatists, a certain «bonhomie» towards it. Still the Donatist church preferred the rhetoric of exclusion and filled their martyr stories with it. Military and civil servants were accused of cruelty, greediness, adultery, helping the false (Catholic) church, hating the true (Donatist) church, lawlessness and being employed by the devil.
Though some scholars suppose, that Donatists produced special political theology, criticizing secular interventions in religious affairs, the author concludes that dissidents themselves did not act fitting to such a theory. They used every chance to gain the help of the Empire. The polemics against it could have a more practical goal: to save the people from leaving the schism under pressure of the anti-donatist legislation.
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Key words: Donatism, hagiography, martyrs, North-African Christianity

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/mamontov-2017-en/

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The martyrdom of Montanus and Lucius: Introductory article, Russian translation and commentary

Kargaltsev Alexey Vital’evich, TheologicalInstitute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (Saint-Petersburg, Russia), kargaltsev@gmail.com

Kargaltsev A. V. The martyrdom of Montanus and Lucius: Introductory article, Russian translation and commentary, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 334–336.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00016

Language: Russian

The article gives a brief description and an annotated translation of the “Martyrdom of St. Montanus and Lucius” (Passio Sanctorum Montani et Lucii, BHL 6009). This interesting source of Roman North Africa created in time of Valerian persecution contains valuable information about the organization of the Christian community of Carthage, as well as its attitude towards martyrdom. It mentions several background characters, that also adds to its value. The text of the monument consists of two parts. The first (1–11) is a report of Christian presence of Christians in prison, apparently recorded by Flavian, while the second (12–23), composed by an anonymous author, tells of the death of Montanus, Lucius and their companions, as well as about the misadventures of the Flavian on the way to suffering. In spite of authenticity of the text being commonly recognized, the problem of the influence on it of other African hagiographical monuments is of big importance, because it contents a number of similar subject courses (visions of characters) and unique features (a huge youth in a gorgeous robe, stairs on the way to paradise, bowl with milk and so on). Another feature of the martyrdom is extensive use of biblical quotations exactly corresponded with Vulgate by Jerome. This, in turn, raises the question of editorial changes and the appearance of the text in general.
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Key words: Valerian, North Africa, hagiography, martyrdom, Flavian

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/kargaltsev-2014-en/

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