Alekaey Vital’evich Kargaltsev PhD in History, senior lecturer, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (naberezhnaya reki Moiki, 48/20a, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 191186)
Kargaltsev A.V. On the peculiarities of Martin Luther’s exegesis, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 32–55.
The article is devoted to the exegetical approaches of Martin Lutherand his contemporaries in the context of Latin patristics and its reception by humanists of the 15–16th centuries. The Latin patristic heritageplayed a huge role in theological debate and reflection in the early 16th century. It was a truly new life-giving stream, which, thanks to the publishing and research work of humanists, gave food to the theological thoughtof the era. The new level of accessibility and relevance of patristic theology was associated with the controversy unfolding between humanistsand scholastics, the general idea of a return to the origins of the earlyChurch. At the same time, the wide availability of new editions of the worksof early Christian writers, the emergence of critical retellings and comments, primarily made by Erasmus, real, and not nominal, acquaintancewith the patristic tradition led to a completely different assessment of it.Luther’s Christ-centered exegesis, in general, much more traditional thanhumanistic exegesis, had its own characteristics: the question arose aboutthe value of the Law, the value of the letter and moralistic edification assuch, declared in the well-known antinomian dispute with Johann Agricola. Augustine and other Latin fathers often make mistakes in their assessment of Luther, too freely handling allegory and abusing it or, on the contrary, deviating into literalism. Luther’s exegesis is based, as he himselfwrote, not some kind of exegetical authority, but Holy Scripture, whichinterprets itself.