Status and Development of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Latvia from 1918 to 2018. An Outline

Jouko Talonen Professor (emeritus), Doctor of Τheology University of Helsinki, Faculty of Theology (Ulrikankuja 6 B 41, Vantaa, Suomi, 01400)
jouko.talonen@helsinki.fi

Talonen J. Status and Development of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Latvia from 1918 to 2018. An Outline, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2023, vol. 12, pp. 232–276.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2023-12-232-276

Language: Russian

The history of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia (ELCL) from 1918 to 2018 is analysed. During the first period of independence (1918– 1940), the ELCL was the church of the majority of the population (55–57%). Quite positive was the period of the Kārlis Ulmanis’s rule. In Soviet Latvia in 1940–1941 and 1944–1987, the church was a persecuted and marginalized faith community. Efforts of Gustavs Turs (1890–1973), the «Red Archbishop», didn’t prevent the church decline. In 1987 the church had only 25,000 active members (about 1% of the population of the Soviet Republic). However, the straightforward estimation of the statistics if troublesome.
In the last years of communism, the church received new operational freedoms from the end of the 1980s onward. After Latvia became independent, the church’s activities continued to develop. However, there was no return to the National Church. However, the ELCL’s forms of work became more and more versatile starting in the 1980s. The Church’s theological profile has been conservative. This has been seen, among other things, in its solid relationship with the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod in America, and in the fact that the church has stopped ordaining women.

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Key words: Eucharist, liturgy, reform, Bible, righteousness, Trinity

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/en-talonen-2023/

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The essence and theology of worship. The history, evaluation and theology of the Mass in the Book of Divine Services approved by the Church of Finland in 2000

Seppo Suokunnas professor (emeritus), doctor of theology University of Helsinki, Faculty of Theology (Ulrikankuja 6 B 41, Vantaa, Suomi, 01400)
sisuokunnas@elisanet.fi

Suokunnas S. Jumalanpalveluksen olemus ja teologia. Messun historiaa, arviointia ja teologiaa Suomen kirkon v. 2000 hyväksytyn Jumalanpalvelusten kirjan äärellä, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2023, vol. 12, pp. 156–178.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2023-12-156-178

Language: Russian

In the article «Jumalanpalveluksen olemus ja teologia. Messun historiaa, arviointia ja teologiaa Suomen kirkon v. 2000 hyväksytyn Jumalanpalvelusten kirjan äärellä» is analysed the reform of worship in Finland in the 1990s. The main question was what could be changed in Lutheran worship and liturgy without distorting the basic content of the faith. The task was set to make worship more free and modern and to cover national liturgical experience. During the work of the committee, various orders of Lutheran worship were analyzed and some conclusions were drawn. The author addresses these issues and gives an assessment of the liturgical reforms carried out. He considers righteousness by faith to be the main criterion for reforming liturgy, and, therefore, greater freedom of the liturgical order is achievable, which at one time was reflected in the preface to the German Mass by Martin Luther (Deutsche Messe). In addition, it is emphasized that the fundamental content of the liturgy is the doctrine of the Trinity. The article also analyzes how the Finnish Reference Book Committee has expanded the use of the Bible in worship services.

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Key words: Eucharist, liturgy, reform, Bible, righteousness, Trinity, epiclesis

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/en-suokkunas-2023/

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The Luthetan traditionalism and high Church

Aleksandr Michaylovich Prilutskiy, doctor in philosophy, professor, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (naberezhnaya reki Moiki, 48/20a, Saint-Petersburg, Russia,191186)
alpril@mail.ru

Prilutskiy A. M. The Luthetan traditionalism and high Church, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 75–90.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00005

Language: Russian

At the present day decline in theology regarded as «book learning» lies behind crisis of  confessional identity. Family and ethnic traditions, aesthetic preferences and other factors determine one’s membership of a confessional fellowship. As a result, a religious entity is no more a community of people having the same beliefs but is based on some other principles. One may count the High Church movement among these principles.

The author critically evaluates classical interpretation of the term High Church and considers it from the perspective of both liturgics and ecclesiology. Adiaphoron is the theological foundation for the High Church movement in Lutheranism. Russian High Church discourse does not form a common semiotic field – some regions are more prone to High Church tendencies than others. Obviously, Russian mental and cultural patterns are assimilated by the communities in the North-West region.

The study is based on the data received from the Church of Ingria. High Church movement proponents are featured by negative perception of liturgical and theological modernism. While the former can be detected easily, the latter may cause some difficulties because of vagueness of terms and using of common Christian notions out of their proper context. The author touches upon High Church movement adherents’ attitude to such «quasi-theological products» as female pastors and same-sex marriages.

Russian High Church Lutheranism can be characterized by the interest to the church fathers’ heritage, particular attitude to the sacraments, maintenance of the traditional holy orders, special attention to the Eucharistic canon, strict conservatism and traditionalism in liturgical hymnography. However, Lutheran High Church movement in the North-West region has not been formed yet.

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Key words: traditionalism, соnfessional theology, High Church, North-West region of Russia, liberalism, apostolic succession, hymnography, liturgy

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/prilutskiy-a-m-2012-en/

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The Cardinal of Lorraine and the liturgy in Reims

Bruno Restif PhD in History, associate professor, University of Reims (Boulevard de la Paix, 9, Reims, France, 51100), bruno.restif@wanadoo.fr

Restif B. The Cardinal of Lorraine and the liturgy in Reims, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2016, vol. 5, pp. 136–157.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2016-00008

Language: English

Charles of Guise, Cardinal of Lorraine, archbishop of Reims since 1538 until his death in 1574, was a major, but complex and enigmatic character, whose capacity to develop several strategies according to changing circumstances, in France and Europe baffled both his contemporaries and historians. The research on the liturgical policy he conducted in his city, diocese and ecclesiastical province of Reims provides better understanding of Cardinal’s aims and level of seriousness. This investigation is rather instructive, because the history of liturgy has been neglected by historians of the Early modern time, whereas it played a central role in the diocesan religious life and in the confessional conflicts of the 16th century. The parochial manual printed in 1554 reveals an enterprise of moderate, gallican and diocesan reform, which, while perfectly Orthodox also developed the use of the French language. The provincial Council of 1564 was a Tridentine turn, but also a logical continuation of the liturgical reform of the 1550’s, aiming desirable purification of chanting and developing a dream of returning to the antique custom. Finally, the processions clearly expressed the personal devotions of the Cardinal of Lorraine, especially to the Blessed Sacrament and to the Holy Cross, as well as the penitential aspect of the last years of his life.
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Key words: Catholic Reformation, Council of Trent, local policy, liturgy, ritual, sacraments, chanting, processions, French language, Blessed Sacrament, penitential devotion

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/restif-b-2016-en/

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