Review on collect of Luther’s works «On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church» edited by Ivan Fokin (Saint-Petersburg, 2017)

Rodion Valentinovich Savinov PhD in Philosophy, senior lecturer Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (Chernigovskaya ulitsa, 5, Saint-Petersburg, 196084)
savrodion@yandex.ru

Savinov R. V. Review on collect of Luther’s works «On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church» edited by Ivan Fokin (Saint-Petersburg, 2017), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 296–317.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00015

Language: Russian

The author considers the collection of Martin Luther’s works, edited by Ivan Fokin, timed to the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. The review included description of the collection, and analysis of key texts from each section. An evaluation of this edition is suggested in the context of Russian research literature devoted to the Reformation and the early Modern.

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Key words: Luther, Reformation, Protestantism, Lutheranism, Anniversary of the Reformation, review

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/savinov-2018-en/

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Method of calculation of Christians in Russia (on the example of the Church of Ingria)

Alexey Igorevich Ivanenko PhD in Philosophy, assistant professor, High School of Technology and Energetics Saint-Petersburg State University of Industrial Technologies and Design (ulitsa Ivana Chernykh, 4, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 198095)
iwanenkoalexy@hotmail.com

Ivanenko A. I. Method of calculation of Christians in Russia (on the example of the Church of Ingria), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 126–149.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00007

Language: Russian

The article is devoted to the calculation method of Christians in Russia, because standard criteria of self-identity or church-visiting contradict to Christian dogmatics. For example, a nominal Christian can deny the existence of God. From other side, clerics can give incredible number of Christians. For Russia we have variative numbers: are there 4% believers or 80%? Author suggests that real number of Christians correlates strongly with the number of parishes, where religious rites (such as predicts and sacraments) exist. The article gives optimal number of Russian Christians based on modern statistics, Christian (Lutheran) dogmatics and evidence of priests. This number is calculated for situation in Lutheran Church of Ingria, where middle parish consists of one or two hundred believers. However, some Christians go to church from time to time and unregularly. They are «bad sheep», but they are Christians, who have a weak faith. Dogmatically, they are not good Christians because of sins. So, real middle number of one parish is 360 believers. Author suggests that it is an optimal number of believers for one parish. Real number of Christians for one confession is 360 multiply by number of parishes. So, author suggests that there are only 10 mln Christians in Russia: 9 mln of Orthodox Christians and 1 mln of the Protestants. But this number is true only for the beginning of the 21st century.

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Key words: denominations, parishes, Christians, Protestantism, Lutheranism, number of Christians

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/ivanenko-2018-en/

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What is forensic/declared in justification, according to the Lutheran viewpoint?

Sergey Aleksandrovich Isaev, PhD in history, principal scientist, Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences(Petrozavodskaja ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197110)
isayevsviir@yandex.ru

Isaev S. A. What is forensic/declared in justification, according to the Lutheran viewpoint?, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 91–98.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00003

Language: Russian

What is forensic/declared in justification, according to the Lutheran viewpoint?

It was just in polemics with Andreas Osiander when the Lutheran viewpoint of justification was worked out as «declared». Based on his experience while writing his articles for the Orthodox Encyclopedia, the author compares Russian and Latin texts of the relevant articles in the Defense of the Augsburg Confession and the Formula of Concord, as well as John Theodore Mueller’ Christian Dogmatics. The article examines the terms and outlines the Orthodox and Catholic viewpoints.

The author sums up interpretation of the Lutheran dogma: justification and imputation are actual, not declarative. Righteousness in the sense of impeccancy is declarative, but it is also actual in the sense of justification. Accordingly, solely impeccancy and capability for expiation of one’s own sinfulness with his or her deeds and merits are declarative. The Lutheran viewpoint is entirely different from that of Catholic and Orthodox churches and yet is reductive or distorted in various handbooks on religious studies.

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Key words: justification, righteousness, sinfulness, imputation, the Defense of the Augsburg Confession, the Formula of Concord, comparative theology

Key words: Confessio Augustiana, Lutheranism, innocence

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/isaev-s-a-2012-en/

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The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Central Asia today

El’vira Yur’evna Jeyds, independent researcher, pastor of ELKRAS, (Nevskiy prospekt 22-24, litera B, St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186)
elvira.zhejds@gmail.com

Jeyds E. Yu. The Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Central Asia today, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 196–201.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00001

Language: Russian

The article is devoted to the analysis of the situation both in the ELKRAS in Russia in the post-Soviet period, and in Lutheranism in general. The author identifies a number of problems that have been faced by the ELKRAS since the revival of the ELKRAS church structures in the 1990s. The main is that the church has not developed its Russian identity, although there were all prerequisites for this. Secondly, the principle of self-sufficiency of the ELKRAS parishes was not developed, first of all, the concept of self-financing. The problem is the current multi-level management system of the ELKRAS. The author concludes that at present the ELKRAS is a gradually self-destructive structure that has lost its former position among the Lutheran churches in Russia. However, such a situation does not mean that it is hopeless. Now for the ELKRAS is a time when all the mistakes of the past and the present have become obvious to all its members and partners.

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Key words: ELKRAS, Lutheranism, crisis, revival, identity

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/jeyds-e-yu-en/

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The tribute of the University of Turku to the 500th anniversary of Reformation. Review of the monography «Pohjoinen Reformaatio» (Helsinki, 2016)

Pavel Valentinovich Krylov PhD in history, leading researcher, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of History (Petrozavodskaya ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, 197110) , pavel_kryloff@mail.ru

Krylov P. V. The tribute of the University of Turku to the 500th anniversary of Reformation. Review of the monography «Pohjoinen Reformaatio» (Helsinkii, 2016), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 418–424.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00021

Language: Russian

The review gives a brief of the book dedicated to the 500th anniversary of the Reformation mainly on the territory of Finland. The author considers the collective work of the Center for Middle Ages and Early Modern Studies at the University of Turku, as well as the Historical Society of Turku, gives an overview of the main content of the monograph and shares some reflections on it.
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Key words: Reformation, anniversary of Reformation, review, Finland, Lutheranism

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/krylov-2017-en/

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«Here we stand. Who are the Lutherans?» by Herman Sasse: Why this is not a good book should be translated into Russian [Zasse G. Na tom stoim. Kto takie lyuterane? [Here we stand. Who are Lutherans?] (Transl. K. Komarov; Ed. A. Komarov), Saint-Petersburg: 1994

Isaev Sergey Aleksandrovich, Sergey Aleksandrovich Isaev, PhD in history, principal scientist, Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Petrozavodskaja ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197110)

isayevsviir@yandex.ru

Isaev S. A. “Here we stand. Who are the Lutherans?” by Herman Sasse: Why this is not a good book should be translated into Russian [Zasse G. Na tom stoim. Kto takie lyuterane? [Here we stand. Who are Lutherans?] (Transl. K. Komarov; Ed. A. Komarov), Saint-Petersburg: 1994, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 337–340.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00021

Language: Russian

Translation of the book “Here we stand. Who are the Lutherans?” by Hermann Sasse appeared twenty years ago and was thought, as follows from its title, to clarify the features of confessional identity for Russian Lutherans. However, the author argues that the title is absolutely misleading and can cause perplexity of a neophyte reader. The translation made by K. Komarov was highly inaccurate and fool of annoying errors and misspellings, while the interpreter itself as well as the editor demonstrated complete ignorance of historical and theological realities. H. Sasse’s book appeared immediately after Nazis coming to power and their attempts to create a unified Protestant church under their leadership. Among Nazis opponents were many Christian denominations — Catholics, Lutherans and Calvinists. H. Sasse himself found a middle path lashing both Nazis and Christian-antifascists. This allowed him to speak out openly on issues of the Church conversions, keeping loyalty to the regime and pursuing a career of lecturer. Thus, reading this book without understanding the context of its creation, which is partially reflected in the review, can hardly contribute to the understanding of the features of the Lutheran beliefs. The author gives the brief amount of the historical background and analyses some errors, made by translators.
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Key words: Barmen Declaration, Karl Barth, Hermann Sasse, Bekennende Kirche, Calvinism, Lutheranism, Prussian Union

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/isaev-2014-en/

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Identidad luterana en América Latina

René Krüger,PhD in theology, professor, Instituto Superior Evangélico de Estudios Teológicos (Camacuá 282, Buenos Aires, Atgentina, C1406DOF)

renekruger@infovia.com.ar

Krüger R. Identidad luterana en América Latina, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2015, vol. 4, pp. 94–115.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2015-00006

Language: Spanish

The article deals with the identity of the Protestant community in Latin America, the region with the absolute dominant of Catholicism. In the 19th century the Evangelical Church of Rio de la Plata (IERP) was created here by German-speaking immigrants (actually Germans, Swiss zwinglians, the Volga Germans, whose influx to Argentina started in 1878). Historically being the center of the life of the German community, IERP continues its service in German nowadays, but the main languages in the last half century of the community are Spanish and Portuguese. If earlier IERP pastors had come from Europe, now Reformed pastoral education could be obtained in Buenos Aires. This caused identical change of the local evangelical church. As the author shows, it is associated with reflections of social and political realities of our time — the power of money, consumerism, selfishness and the widespread ciff in people relations. These are the vices of the 21st century that the Lutheran community in Argentina struglle with the Gospel and his Spirit.
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Key words: Lutheranism, Protestantism, immigrants, Buenis Aires, theology

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/renekruger-2015-en/

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The problem of the Middle Ages in the Martin Luther’s Theology

Alexey Igorevich Ivanenko PhD in Philosophy, assistant professor, Theological Institute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (der. Kolbino, 25a, Leningrad region, Vsevolozhsk district, Russia, 188680), iwanenkoalexy@hotmail.com

Ivanenko A. I. The problem of the Middle Ages in the Martin Luther’s theology, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2016, vol. 5, pp. 34–41.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2016-00003

Language: Russian

The article is devoted to the interpretation of the Middle Ages from the engle of the Martin Luther’s theology. The main problem is dual status of the Middle Ages. It’s the time of Christian hegemony, but also the period of negative pre-Reformation tendencies. The Lutherans found a middle position between negative humanistic and positive Catholic estimations. In Luther’s texts the Middle ages are seen within two general concepts — of Millenialism and the Babilonian captivity of the Church. According to Luther, millenialism is not in future, it describes the ancient period of the Church’s history. Here Luther bases on ecclesiology of St. Augustine. Millenialism was the time of undivided Church. The Babylonian captivity of the Church began from the Great Schism in 1054. Luther here concentrates not on the question of procession of the Holy Spirit «from the Son» (Filioque), but on the role of priest and understanding of the sacraments. He critisized the idea, that during the liturgy eucharistic bread transformed into the Body of the Lord. This magical interpretation was invented by Thomas Aquinat in the 13th centure. According to Lutheranism, a priest is a pastor, who predicts the Word of God, but not a wizard, who transforms the substance of bread. Another aspect of the Babylonian captivity of the Church is absence of national language in the liturgy. Western Church had a Latin liturgy in the Middle Ages, because Latin was a national language at the time of St. Jerome and St. Augustine, but it was a dead language by the 10th centure.
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Key words: the Middle Ages, Millennialism, Babylonian captivity of the Church, Reformation, Lutheranism

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/ivanenko-a-i-2016-en/

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