The sixth supplication of the Lord’s Prayer: God, the Father, does for us the good

Rainer Stahl retired general secretary of Martin Luther Bund (Habichtstrasse 14 A, Erlangen, Germany, D-91056)
rainer.stahl.1@gmx.de

Stahl R. The sixth supplication of the Lord’s Prayer: God, the  Father, does for us the good, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 86–98.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00022

Language: Russian

Until Advent 1st, 2018, there was a discussion in the Roman-CatholicChurch about the understanding of the sixth supplication of the Lord’sPrayer: What God is doing with us? In the French and in the Italian language they have changed the formulation away from God as tempting usto God as testing, as proving us. Also, the French speaking Lutheran congregation in Moscow did follow this decision. Therefore this paper goesthe following way: we have to understand the difficult dimensions seeingGod as Father and Mother (Pope John Paul I). This was done for a longtime, what the personal names in the Bible show. One important storyof the New Testament is that one of the «lost son» and his relation to hisfather (Luke 15). Against this background we have to question the formulation that God does not lead us into temptation. First we have to understand that God does not tempt us — see: James 1. And important is herethe statement of the Apostle Paul in 1. Corinthians 10: «God is faithful».We as Lutherans have a very clear insight by Martin Luther in his SmallCatechism: «God does not tempt anyone — but we’re asking in that prayerthat God may save us from all bad powers <…> that we may win and get thevictory». Therefore, depsite using the traditional formulation, the Lord’sprayer can be understood it in the reflected way: within our lifetime Goddoes not tempt but does prove us.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Lord’s Prayer, God as Father and Mother, sixth supplication, temptation, testing, proving, Pope Francis, Martin Luther, Small Catechism

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/stahl-2020-en/

download PDF
HTML

Reflection of humanism in Protestant Germany: review on the teaching aid by M.A. Polyakova «Pedagogy of Cinquecento»

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie PhD in History, assistant lecturer, Faculty of Foreign Languages, St. Petersburg State University (Universitetskaia nab., 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
z.lurie@spbu.ru

Lurie Z.A. Reflection of humanism in Protestant Germany: review on the teaching aid by M.A. Polyakova «Pedagogy of Cinquecento», Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 430–435.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00013

Language: Russian

The review feedbacks on the appearance of a rather valuable teaching aidthat provides a sufficiently complete and comprehensive picture of the educational processes that took place in Europe in the 16th century. M. A. Polyakovaconsiders this period being an integral and specific era by using the conceptof Cinquecento. At the same time, her main focus lies in the teaching practicesand ideals of the Reformation Germany. The writing examines basic modelsof educational institutions, ideal theoretical ideas — pedagogical utopias, andgives portraits of some of the educational leaders of the era. Supplementedwith questions and assignments, as well as lists of recommended literature, theaid can be useful for both specialists and students.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Erasmus of Rotterdam, Martin Luther, Celio Seconde Curione, school model, school order, utopia

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2020-en/

download PDF
HTML

The article by which the church stands or falls

Barend Kamphuis Doctor, professor emeritus of Systematic Theology, Theological University of the Reformed Churches (Broederweg 15, 8261 GS Kampen, Netherlands)
bkamphuis@tukampen.nl

Kamphuis B. The article by which the church stands or falls, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 72–85.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00003

Language: English

Martin Luther said about the doctrine of justification: «Because ifthis articlestands, the church stands; if this article collapses, the churchcollapses». Later on, this became a sort of proverb, in Lutheran and alsoin Reformed theology: «justificatioest articulus stantis et cadentis ecclesiae», «Justification is the article by which the church stands or falls».In this article I analyse and evaluate this saying. First, I discuss its context. Then I mention some other articles that were important in the history of Christian doctrine. In the third place I highlight the danger of onesidedness. Lastly, I discuss the historicity of doctrine. Luther’s focus onthe doctrine of justification had its context in the specific circumstancesand problems of his time. In other times the church stood or fell by otherarticles. The focus on one article has the danger of one-sidedness: we mustbe aware of other aspects of the gospel, that always has more treasuresthan we can comprehend. It is our task to proclaim the gospel as an answerfor the questions and problems of our time.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Martin Luther, Calvin, justification, doctrine, the Gospel

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/kamphius-2020-en/

download PDF
HTML

The Formation of the Evangelical Confession in Germany: Melanchthon and religious polemics in the middle of the 16th century

Natal’ya Aleksandrovna Berezhnaya PhD of History, senior lecturer, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
n.berezhnaya@spbu.ru, natalialandi@mail.ru

Berezhnaya N. A. The Formation of the Evangelical Confession in Germany: Melanchthon and religious polemics in the middle of the 16th century, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 216–253.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00012

Language: Russian

The present article examines the formation of the evangelical denomination in Germany for fifteen years after the death of Martin Luther. The author analyses the relationship and dogmatic disagreements between  Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, Melanchthon’s activities as a leader of German Protestants, his attempts to create a new formula of dogma, which was to unite the supporters of the two versions of the Augsburg Confession, unaltered and altered, and the Gnesio-Lutherans. In addition, the author notes the communication of Melanchthon with the princely elite of Protestant Germany. These communications are of interest, since it was the authority of the imperial princes that helped the theologian lead the Evangelical Church. The main subject of internal protestant discussions in the second half of the 1540–1550s were the adiaphora and the Eucharist. The GnesioLutherans accused Melanchthon of «cryptocalvinism» because of the peculiarities of his views on the Eucharist, and also because of his unwillingness to refuse Calvin in response to the proposal to unite the evangelical and reformist confession. However, Luther himself did not require his comrade to renounce his views, that is, he did not consider them an error. GnesioLutheran theologians would have found it difficult to accuse Melanchthon of apostasy if not for his position on the issue of adiaphora and for the support of the Elector Moritz of Saxony.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Evangelical Church, Gnesio-Lutherans, Reformed tradition, Adiaphora, Eucharist

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/berejhnaya-2019-en/

download PDF
HTML

«Instructions of the Visitors to Parishers in Electoral Saxony» by Philip Melanchthon: introductory article and the commented translation of the chapters «On everyday activities in churches» and «On schools»

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie PhD in History, assistant lecturer, Faculty of Foreign Languages, St. Petersburg State University (Universitetskaia nab., 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
z.lurie@spbu.ru

Mariya Aleksandrovna Polyakova PhD in Pedagogy, assistant professor, New Russian University (Zapadnaya ul., 9, str. 1, Moscow, Russia, 142181)
marussia71@yandex.ru

Lurie Z. A., Polyakova M. A. «Instructions of the Visitors to Parishers in Electoral Saxony» by Philip Melanchthon: introductory article and the commented translation of the chapters «On everyday activities in churches» and «On schools», Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 356–379.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00017

Language: Russian

This publication is the first Russian translation of excerpts from Philip Melanchthon’s «Instructions». The text established the normative order (Ordnung), which should have been followed locally, both in terms of dogma (which covers a significant part of the text: 14 of 18 articles), and of practical aspects of church life (general issues, liturgy, marriage, dispute about free will, the practice of church excommunication and the war with the Turks) and, finally, educational systems. Melanchton addressed his recommendations to evangelical ministers. School education, in accordance with the concept of Melanchthon, is strictly hierarchical and prepares citizens for various ministries. It is based on the study of languages and combines humanistic methods with catechesis. Melanchton divided the children into three classes, which also became the norm for Protestant charters. He also pays great attention to the practical aspects of church life, in particular to the liturgical reform. Melanchthon is quite interested in preaching as a catechetical, educational practice.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Melanchthon, trivium schools, gymnasiums, cantorship, Luther, Reformation

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/lurie-polyakova-2010-en/

download PDF
HTML

Landmarkist Baptism:now in Russia! Review of the book by V. N. Sobolev «Baptists: Who Are They?» (Chelyabinsk, 2015)

Sergey Aleksandrovich Isaev PhD in History, Master of arts in Theology, assistant professor, Saint-Petersburg Theological Academy (naberezhnaya Obvodnogo kanala, 17, Sankt-Peterburg, 191167)
isayevsviir@yandex.ru

Isaev S. A. Landmarkist Baptism: now in Russia! Review of the book by V. N. Sobolev «Baptists: who are they?» (Chelyabinsk, 2015), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 318–343.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00016

Language: Russian

The review of a book written by a Baptist from Chelyabinsk on Baptism at large. Having read what Sobolev wrote on the origin of Baptism and its relation to the Reformation, the reviewer concludes that it is the reproduction of the mythology of Landmarkism — the trend in U.S. Southern Baptism, emerged about 1847. The Landmarkists believe that during all the history of the Christian Church the secret tradition of adult re-Baptism existed.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Luther, Calvin, John Knox, James Graves, William Whitsett, Thomas Eaton, Edgar Young Mullins

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/isaev-2018-en/

download PDF
HTML

Review on collect of Luther’s works «On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church» edited by Ivan Fokin (Saint-Petersburg, 2017)

Rodion Valentinovich Savinov PhD in Philosophy, senior lecturer Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (Chernigovskaya ulitsa, 5, Saint-Petersburg, 196084)
savrodion@yandex.ru

Savinov R. V. Review on collect of Luther’s works «On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church» edited by Ivan Fokin (Saint-Petersburg, 2017), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 296–317.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00015

Language: Russian

The author considers the collection of Martin Luther’s works, edited by Ivan Fokin, timed to the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. The review included description of the collection, and analysis of key texts from each section. An evaluation of this edition is suggested in the context of Russian research literature devoted to the Reformation and the early Modern.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Luther, Reformation, Protestantism, Lutheranism, Anniversary of the Reformation, review

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/savinov-2018-en/

download PDF
HTML

Oscillations of love. Relationship of Law and Gospel in the context of the theology of the process (on the example of the theology of Katherine Keller)

Anton Vladimirovich Tihomirov Doctor in theology, Theological seminary of the Evangelical-Lutheran hurch (derevnya Novosaratovka, 140, Leningradskaya oblast’, Russia, 193149)
tikhomirov@live.com

Tihomirov A. V. Oscillations of love. Relationship of Law and Gospel in the context of the theology of the process (on the example of the theology of Katherine Keller), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 18–43.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00002

Language: Russian

The author examines the basic principles of the modern theology of the process inspired by the philosophy of the process of Alfred Whitehead. It is studied on the example of theology of a prominent representative of this trend, our contemporary Katherine Keller. In process theology, the world and God are understood as being in constant interaction that finally remains open. It openly denies the omnipotence of God. In relations with the world, He can act as a suffering and receiving power. The main focus of Keller’s analysis of creativity is the consideration of the dialectic of Eros, as the inspiring and impelling power of God, and Agape, as God’s saving mercy. At the same time, the author analyzes this pair of concepts in the context of the relationship between Law and Gospel in classical Lutheran theology. The author shows that, although some representatives of the theology of the process understand the relationship of Eros and Agape as a reflection of Luther’s distinction between Law and Gospel, it is still difficult to find a direct correspondence between these pairs of concepts. In Luther’s understanding, Law is opposed to Gospel, while Eros and Agape in the theology of the process complement each other and strive to complete fusion. It is noted, however, that Keller does not openly refer to Luther and does not argue with him, focusing her criticism on the teachings of Jean Calvin. Nevertheless, the author emphasizes that the ideas developed in the framework of the theology of the process can have a consoling character in the face of questions and doubts of a modern man, i.e. under certain conditions, to fulfill a purpose similar to the aime of the Martin Luther’s distinction between Law and Gospel.

Key words: Calvin, Luther, Agape, Eros, Theology, God

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/tihomirov-2018-en/

Creative Commons License
download PDF
HTML

Historical and liturgical features of the use of national languages

Fedor Petrovich Tulynin, lecturer, TheologicalInstitute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (der. Kolbino, d. 25a, Leningrad region, Vsevolozhsk district, Russia, 188680)
email

Tulunin F. P. Historical and liturgical features of the use of national languages, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 88–99.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00005

Language: Russian

History of Church service in national languages is studied within the article. The author shows it’s developement in the early Christianity, however, brought to a close within Catholic latinatisation and revealed through Reformation. Peculiar attention is paid to Luther’s views on the subject. The example of the Lutheran Church has led to change in Catholic attitude to the use of national languages and might cause changes in the Ortodox tradition.

Creative Commons License

Key words: national languages​​, Church service, rite, Agenda, Luther

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/tulynin-2013-en/

download PDF
HTML

«Theology of liberation» ant its conception of World history

Krylov Pavel Valentinovich, PhD in history, Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences(Petrozavodskaja ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197110)
pavel_kryloff@mail.ru

Krylov P. V. «Theology of liberation» ant its conception of World history, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 151–187.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00008

Language: Russian

The article analyses historiography characteristics of liberationists’ papers. «Theology of liberation» was shaped in 1970s and influenced by Marxism; its choice for the poor is caused by «social» reading of the Gospel. Theological speculations are based on «history». Historical Christ becomes a political figure and is contrasted to Western Christianity’s notion. Liberationists deliberately ideologize history, declaring the principle of impartiality to be bourgeois and thus untenable.

«Theology of liberation» favorably adapted an old idea of a special role of Latin America in the world history and transformed it into distinctive «Latin American socialism», that however differs from indigenismo. Dialogue with other non-Christian religions is popular. Latin America is the only Christian group of the so-called «Third World» nations, and this fact provides its special mission of mediation between Western theological tradition and most part of the non-Christian «Third World».

The author demonstrates historiographic terms are critically evaluated in liberationists’ language, especially those related to Spanish intrusion to Latin America after Columbus’s expedition. Such notions as political regime, liberty, development are also getting new connotations. Some theologians attempt to revise M. Luther’s view on the Peasants’ War, they emphasize the moderate attitude of U. Zwingli. The article names various pacific measures proposed for history teaching.

Deep impact of liberationist ideas on historical studies is guaranteed by mutual support among the liberationists, lack of criticism of both opponents and false teachings, furthermore, there are no efforts to have any hierarchy in the movement.

The author contrasts «theology of liberation» and neoliberal capitalism concluding that their discussion turns into the battle of ideological antagonists.

Creative Commons License

Key words: «theology of liberation», liberationism, Latin America, L. Boff, G. Gutiérrez, K. Marx, M. Luther, pacifism, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/krylov-p-v-2012-en/

download PDF
HTML