The Formation of the Evangelical Confession in Germany: Melanchthon and religious polemics in the middle of the 16th century

Natal’ya Aleksandrovna Berezhnaya PhD of History, senior lecturer, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
n.berezhnaya@spbu.ru, natalialandi@mail.ru

Berezhnaya N. A. The Formation of the Evangelical Confession in Germany: Melanchthon and religious polemics in the middle of the 16th century, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 216–253.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00012

Language: Russian

The present article examines the formation of the evangelical denomination in Germany for fifteen years after the death of Martin Luther. The author analyses the relationship and dogmatic disagreements between  Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, Melanchthon’s activities as a leader of German Protestants, his attempts to create a new formula of dogma, which was to unite the supporters of the two versions of the Augsburg Confession, unaltered and altered, and the Gnesio-Lutherans. In addition, the author notes the communication of Melanchthon with the princely elite of Protestant Germany. These communications are of interest, since it was the authority of the imperial princes that helped the theologian lead the Evangelical Church. The main subject of internal protestant discussions in the second half of the 1540–1550s were the adiaphora and the Eucharist. The GnesioLutherans accused Melanchthon of «cryptocalvinism» because of the peculiarities of his views on the Eucharist, and also because of his unwillingness to refuse Calvin in response to the proposal to unite the evangelical and reformist confession. However, Luther himself did not require his comrade to renounce his views, that is, he did not consider them an error. GnesioLutheran theologians would have found it difficult to accuse Melanchthon of apostasy if not for his position on the issue of adiaphora and for the support of the Elector Moritz of Saxony.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Evangelical Church, Gnesio-Lutherans, Reformed tradition, Adiaphora, Eucharist

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/berejhnaya-2019-en/

download PDF
HTML

«Instructions of the Visitors to Parishers in Electoral Saxony» by Philip Melanchthon: introductory article and the commented translation of the chapters «On everyday activities in churches» and «On schools»

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie PhD in History, assistant lecturer, Faculty of Foreign Languages, St. Petersburg State University (Universitetskaia nab., 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
z.lurie@spbu.ru

Mariya Aleksandrovna Polyakova PhD in Pedagogy, assistant professor, New Russian University (Zapadnaya ul., 9, str. 1, Moscow, Russia, 142181)
marussia71@yandex.ru

Lurie Z. A., Polyakova M. A. «Instructions of the Visitors to Parishers in Electoral Saxony» by Philip Melanchthon: introductory article and the commented translation of the chapters «On everyday activities in churches» and «On schools», Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 356–379.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00017

Language: Russian

This publication is the first Russian translation of excerpts from Philip Melanchthon’s «Instructions». The text established the normative order (Ordnung), which should have been followed locally, both in terms of dogma (which covers a significant part of the text: 14 of 18 articles), and of practical aspects of church life (general issues, liturgy, marriage, dispute about free will, the practice of church excommunication and the war with the Turks) and, finally, educational systems. Melanchton addressed his recommendations to evangelical ministers. School education, in accordance with the concept of Melanchthon, is strictly hierarchical and prepares citizens for various ministries. It is based on the study of languages and combines humanistic methods with catechesis. Melanchton divided the children into three classes, which also became the norm for Protestant charters. He also pays great attention to the practical aspects of church life, in particular to the liturgical reform. Melanchthon is quite interested in preaching as a catechetical, educational practice.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Melanchthon, trivium schools, gymnasiums, cantorship, Luther, Reformation

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/lurie-polyakova-2010-en/

download PDF
HTML

Landmarkist Baptism:now in Russia! Review of the book by V. N. Sobolev «Baptists: Who Are They?» (Chelyabinsk, 2015)

Sergey Aleksandrovich Isaev PhD in History, Master of arts in Theology, assistant professor, Saint-Petersburg Theological Academy (naberezhnaya Obvodnogo kanala, 17, Sankt-Peterburg, 191167)
isayevsviir@yandex.ru

Isaev S. A. Landmarkist Baptism: now in Russia! Review of the book by V. N. Sobolev «Baptists: who are they?» (Chelyabinsk, 2015), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 318–343.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00016

Language: Russian

The review of a book written by a Baptist from Chelyabinsk on Baptism at large. Having read what Sobolev wrote on the origin of Baptism and its relation to the Reformation, the reviewer concludes that it is the reproduction of the mythology of Landmarkism — the trend in U.S. Southern Baptism, emerged about 1847. The Landmarkists believe that during all the history of the Christian Church the secret tradition of adult re-Baptism existed.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Luther, Calvin, John Knox, James Graves, William Whitsett, Thomas Eaton, Edgar Young Mullins

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/isaev-2018-en/

download PDF
HTML

Review on collect of Luther’s works «On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church» edited by Ivan Fokin (Saint-Petersburg, 2017)

Rodion Valentinovich Savinov PhD in Philosophy, senior lecturer Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (Chernigovskaya ulitsa, 5, Saint-Petersburg, 196084)
savrodion@yandex.ru

Savinov R. V. Review on collect of Luther’s works «On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church» edited by Ivan Fokin (Saint-Petersburg, 2017), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 296–317.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00015

Language: Russian

The author considers the collection of Martin Luther’s works, edited by Ivan Fokin, timed to the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. The review included description of the collection, and analysis of key texts from each section. An evaluation of this edition is suggested in the context of Russian research literature devoted to the Reformation and the early Modern.

Creative Commons License

Key words: Luther, Reformation, Protestantism, Lutheranism, Anniversary of the Reformation, review

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/savinov-2018-en/

download PDF
HTML

Oscillations of love. Relationship of Law and Gospel in the context of the theology of the process (on the example of the theology of Katherine Keller)

Anton Vladimirovich Tihomirov Doctor in theology, Theological seminary of the Evangelical-Lutheran hurch (derevnya Novosaratovka, 140, Leningradskaya oblast’, Russia, 193149)
tikhomirov@live.com

Tihomirov A. V. Oscillations of love. Relationship of Law and Gospel in the context of the theology of the process (on the example of the theology of Katherine Keller), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 18–43.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00002

Language: Russian

The author examines the basic principles of the modern theology of the process inspired by the philosophy of the process of Alfred Whitehead. It is studied on the example of theology of a prominent representative of this trend, our contemporary Katherine Keller. In process theology, the world and God are understood as being in constant interaction that finally remains open. It openly denies the omnipotence of God. In relations with the world, He can act as a suffering and receiving power. The main focus of Keller’s analysis of creativity is the consideration of the dialectic of Eros, as the inspiring and impelling power of God, and Agape, as God’s saving mercy. At the same time, the author analyzes this pair of concepts in the context of the relationship between Law and Gospel in classical Lutheran theology. The author shows that, although some representatives of the theology of the process understand the relationship of Eros and Agape as a reflection of Luther’s distinction between Law and Gospel, it is still difficult to find a direct correspondence between these pairs of concepts. In Luther’s understanding, Law is opposed to Gospel, while Eros and Agape in the theology of the process complement each other and strive to complete fusion. It is noted, however, that Keller does not openly refer to Luther and does not argue with him, focusing her criticism on the teachings of Jean Calvin. Nevertheless, the author emphasizes that the ideas developed in the framework of the theology of the process can have a consoling character in the face of questions and doubts of a modern man, i.e. under certain conditions, to fulfill a purpose similar to the aime of the Martin Luther’s distinction between Law and Gospel.

Key words: Calvin, Luther, Agape, Eros, Theology, God

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/tihomirov-2018-en/

Creative Commons License
download PDF
HTML

Historical and liturgical features of the use of national languages

Fedor Petrovich Tulynin, lecturer, TheologicalInstitute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (der. Kolbino, d. 25a, Leningrad region, Vsevolozhsk district, Russia, 188680)
email

Tulunin F. P. Historical and liturgical features of the use of national languages, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 88–99.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00005

Language: Russian

History of Church service in national languages is studied within the article. The author shows it’s developement in the early Christianity, however, brought to a close within Catholic latinatisation and revealed through Reformation. Peculiar attention is paid to Luther’s views on the subject. The example of the Lutheran Church has led to change in Catholic attitude to the use of national languages and might cause changes in the Ortodox tradition.

Creative Commons License

Key words: national languages​​, Church service, rite, Agenda, Luther

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/tulynin-2013-en/

download PDF
HTML

«Theology of liberation» ant its conception of World history

Krylov Pavel Valentinovich, PhD in history, Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences(Petrozavodskaja ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197110)
pavel_kryloff@mail.ru

Krylov P. V. «Theology of liberation» ant its conception of World history, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 151–187.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00008

Language: Russian

The article analyses historiography characteristics of liberationists’ papers. «Theology of liberation» was shaped in 1970s and influenced by Marxism; its choice for the poor is caused by «social» reading of the Gospel. Theological speculations are based on «history». Historical Christ becomes a political figure and is contrasted to Western Christianity’s notion. Liberationists deliberately ideologize history, declaring the principle of impartiality to be bourgeois and thus untenable.

«Theology of liberation» favorably adapted an old idea of a special role of Latin America in the world history and transformed it into distinctive «Latin American socialism», that however differs from indigenismo. Dialogue with other non-Christian religions is popular. Latin America is the only Christian group of the so-called «Third World» nations, and this fact provides its special mission of mediation between Western theological tradition and most part of the non-Christian «Third World».

The author demonstrates historiographic terms are critically evaluated in liberationists’ language, especially those related to Spanish intrusion to Latin America after Columbus’s expedition. Such notions as political regime, liberty, development are also getting new connotations. Some theologians attempt to revise M. Luther’s view on the Peasants’ War, they emphasize the moderate attitude of U. Zwingli. The article names various pacific measures proposed for history teaching.

Deep impact of liberationist ideas on historical studies is guaranteed by mutual support among the liberationists, lack of criticism of both opponents and false teachings, furthermore, there are no efforts to have any hierarchy in the movement.

The author contrasts «theology of liberation» and neoliberal capitalism concluding that their discussion turns into the battle of ideological antagonists.

Creative Commons License

Key words: «theology of liberation», liberationism, Latin America, L. Boff, G. Gutiérrez, K. Marx, M. Luther, pacifism, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/krylov-p-v-2012-en/

download PDF
HTML

Review of the monography by V. A. Bachinin «Europeamn Reformation as spiritual war» (Kiev, 2017)

Sergey Aleksandrovich Isaev PhD in history, senior researcher, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of History (Petrozavodskaya ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, 197110) , isayevsviir@yandex.ru

Isaev S. A. Review on the monography by V. A. Bachinin «European Reformation as spiritual war» (Kiev, 2017), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 406–417.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00020

Language: Russian

The book is considered as a product of culturological scholarship created by Russian Calvinist. Vladislav Bachinin is sure that the Roman Catholic Church in the late medieval Europe was infected by Renaissance ideas — paganistic and anti-Christian. According to Bachinin, the Reformation saved the European Christianity from this threat. The main savior, according to Bachinin, was John Calvin. Martin Luther is considered as the great «pathfinder» of Reformation and harbinger of Calvin.

Key words: Luther, Calvin, Jan Huss, theology, culture, Calvinism, Europe

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/isaev-2017-en/

download PDF
HTML

Regulation of school work in the German rules of the confessional era and the first German schools in Moscow

Maria Alexandrovna Poliakova PhD in pedagogy, associate professor, Kaluga Branch of Bauman Moscow State Technical University (ulitsa Bazhenova, 2, Kaluga, Russia, 248000) , mariap71@rambler.ru

Poliakova M. A. Regulation of school work in the German rules of the confessional era and the first German schools in Moscow, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 318–343.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00016

Language: Russian

The article discusses the activities of Martin Luther and his associates in the field of educational development, namely, Luther’s justification for the necessity of opening schools and teaching children the basics of the Christian faith and consequently creation and implementation of the first school rules. The author shows continuity of ideas of the reformers and also reveals the features peculiar to the rules of the 16th century in the unique document of the Thirty years War era «Schulmethodus», compiled by the talented teacher and publisher Andreas Reyher, with the open patronage of Duke Saxe-Goth Ernst Pious. Thus, it can be concluded that Luther’s ideas on the development of education and the efforts of his colleagues (Johann Agricola, Philip Melanchthon, Johannes Bugenhagen, Johannes Brenz) on the introduction of school education in the German lands were not in vain and found their worthy continuation in the next century. Moreover, the system of school education, represented in «Schulmethodus» and successfully established in the Gotha school, was known and partly used in the first Moscow schools of the German settlement.
Creative Commons License

Key words: Luther, Schulordnungen, school rules, Latin schools, German schools, Visitors’ instruction, Melanchthon, Bugenhagen, Ernst the Pious, Reyher, Schulmethodus, German settlement

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/poliakova-2017-en/

download PDF
HTML

How to speak to people about heresy? First prints against the Reformation in French (1520–1530)

Tatiana Debbagi Baranova, PhD in history, assistant professor, Paris-Sorbonne University (75230, France, Paris, 1 rue Victor Cousin)

debbagi_baranova@yahoo.fr

Debbagi Baranova Т. How to speak to people about heresy? First prints against the Reformation in French (1520–1530), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 182–207.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00010

Language: English

This article intends to address the ways of fighting against heresy in Catholic prints in French during 1520–1530s. The dominant position of the Catholic Church — formulated by the Faculty of Theology in Paris — was that the people had to be kept out of theological debate. On the one hand, the divines thought that public controversy in front of uneducated people — or even the description of the heresy -would contribute to the spread of Lutheran ideas or to the misunderstanding of the right doctrine. On the other hand, they needed to affirm their role as scholars and exclusive interpreters of Scripture. The Doctors of the Church wanted to limit the dissemination of heresy via preventive censorship, repression and theological controversy in Latin. However this proposal contradicted the need to warn the king, his entourage and the people of the danger posed by heretics. The Faculty of Theology authorised the publication of works which described heresy as an offence against God, his mother, the saints, and the whole Church, and which celebrated the repressive action of the political authorities. This description made the heresy identifiable without entering into theological argumentation. Furthermore, many anonymous works — songs, stories of miracles, defamatory poetry — condemned the heretics and their protectors. The king was the first target of these writings. However, towards the end of the 1530s, the success of the Lutheran doctrine persuaded the Doctors — such as Jerome de Hangest and Pierre Doré — of  the need to defend the attacks on the Church in French in order to strengthen the consciences of the faithful who were exposed to the danger of seduction in their daily lives. They tried then to share their arguments while asserting themselves as the only specialists able to lead theological reflexion.
Creative Commons License

Key words: Luther, Lutherans, Reformation, Faculty of Theology, Church authority, religious polemic, miracle, public opinion

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/debbagi-baranova-2017-en/

download PDF
HTML