Oscillations of love. Relationship of Law and Gospel in the context of the theology of the process (on the example of the theology of Katherine Keller)

Anton Vladimirovich Tihomirov Doctor in theology, Theological seminary of the Evangelical-Lutheran hurch (derevnya Novosaratovka, 140, Leningradskaya oblast’, Russia, 193149)
tikhomirov@live.com

Tihomirov A. V. Oscillations of love. Relationship of Law and Gospel in the context of the theology of the process (on the example of the theology of Katherine Keller), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 18–43.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00002

Language: Russian

The author examines the basic principles of the modern theology of the process inspired by the philosophy of the process of Alfred Whitehead. It is studied on the example of theology of a prominent representative of this trend, our contemporary Katherine Keller. In process theology, the world and God are understood as being in constant interaction that finally remains open. It openly denies the omnipotence of God. In relations with the world, He can act as a suffering and receiving power. The main focus of Keller’s analysis of creativity is the consideration of the dialectic of Eros, as the inspiring and impelling power of God, and Agape, as God’s saving mercy. At the same time, the author analyzes this pair of concepts in the context of the relationship between Law and Gospel in classical Lutheran theology. The author shows that, although some representatives of the theology of the process understand the relationship of Eros and Agape as a reflection of Luther’s distinction between Law and Gospel, it is still difficult to find a direct correspondence between these pairs of concepts. In Luther’s understanding, Law is opposed to Gospel, while Eros and Agape in the theology of the process complement each other and strive to complete fusion. It is noted, however, that Keller does not openly refer to Luther and does not argue with him, focusing her criticism on the teachings of Jean Calvin. Nevertheless, the author emphasizes that the ideas developed in the framework of the theology of the process can have a consoling character in the face of questions and doubts of a modern man, i.e. under certain conditions, to fulfill a purpose similar to the aime of the Martin Luther’s distinction between Law and Gospel.

Key words: Calvin, Luther, Agape, Eros, Theology, God

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/tihomirov-2018-en/

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Historical and liturgical features of the use of national languages

Fedor Petrovich Tulynin, lecturer, TheologicalInstitute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (der. Kolbino, d. 25a, Leningrad region, Vsevolozhsk district, Russia, 188680)
email

Tulunin F. P. Historical and liturgical features of the use of national languages, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 88–99.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00005

Language: Russian

History of Church service in national languages is studied within the article. The author shows it’s developement in the early Christianity, however, brought to a close within Catholic latinatisation and revealed through Reformation. Peculiar attention is paid to Luther’s views on the subject. The example of the Lutheran Church has led to change in Catholic attitude to the use of national languages and might cause changes in the Ortodox tradition.

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Key words: national languages​​, Church service, rite, Agenda, Luther

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/tulynin-2013-en/

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«Theology of liberation» ant its conception of World history

Krylov Pavel Valentinovich, PhD in history, Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences(Petrozavodskaja ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197110)
pavel_kryloff@mail.ru

Krylov P. V. «Theology of liberation» ant its conception of World history, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 151–187.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00008

Language: Russian

The article analyses historiography characteristics of liberationists’ papers. «Theology of liberation» was shaped in 1970s and influenced by Marxism; its choice for the poor is caused by «social» reading of the Gospel. Theological speculations are based on «history». Historical Christ becomes a political figure and is contrasted to Western Christianity’s notion. Liberationists deliberately ideologize history, declaring the principle of impartiality to be bourgeois and thus untenable.

«Theology of liberation» favorably adapted an old idea of a special role of Latin America in the world history and transformed it into distinctive «Latin American socialism», that however differs from indigenismo. Dialogue with other non-Christian religions is popular. Latin America is the only Christian group of the so-called «Third World» nations, and this fact provides its special mission of mediation between Western theological tradition and most part of the non-Christian «Third World».

The author demonstrates historiographic terms are critically evaluated in liberationists’ language, especially those related to Spanish intrusion to Latin America after Columbus’s expedition. Such notions as political regime, liberty, development are also getting new connotations. Some theologians attempt to revise M. Luther’s view on the Peasants’ War, they emphasize the moderate attitude of U. Zwingli. The article names various pacific measures proposed for history teaching.

Deep impact of liberationist ideas on historical studies is guaranteed by mutual support among the liberationists, lack of criticism of both opponents and false teachings, furthermore, there are no efforts to have any hierarchy in the movement.

The author contrasts «theology of liberation» and neoliberal capitalism concluding that their discussion turns into the battle of ideological antagonists.

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Key words: «theology of liberation», liberationism, Latin America, L. Boff, G. Gutiérrez, K. Marx, M. Luther, pacifism, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/krylov-p-v-2012-en/

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Review of the monography by V. A. Bachinin «Europeamn Reformation as spiritual war» (Kiev, 2017)

Sergey Aleksandrovich Isaev PhD in history, senior researcher, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of History (Petrozavodskaya ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, 197110) , isayevsviir@yandex.ru

Isaev S. A. Review on the monography by V. A. Bachinin «European Reformation as spiritual war» (Kiev, 2017), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 406–417.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00020

Language: Russian

The book is considered as a product of culturological scholarship created by Russian Calvinist. Vladislav Bachinin is sure that the Roman Catholic Church in the late medieval Europe was infected by Renaissance ideas — paganistic and anti-Christian. According to Bachinin, the Reformation saved the European Christianity from this threat. The main savior, according to Bachinin, was John Calvin. Martin Luther is considered as the great «pathfinder» of Reformation and harbinger of Calvin.

Key words: Luther, Calvin, Jan Huss, theology, culture, Calvinism, Europe

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/isaev-2017-en/

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Regulation of school work in the German rules of the confessional era and the first German schools in Moscow

Maria Alexandrovna Poliakova PhD in pedagogy, associate professor, Kaluga Branch of Bauman Moscow State Technical University (ulitsa Bazhenova, 2, Kaluga, Russia, 248000) , mariap71@rambler.ru

Poliakova M. A. Regulation of school work in the German rules of the confessional era and the first German schools in Moscow, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 318–343.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00016

Language: Russian

The article discusses the activities of Martin Luther and his associates in the field of educational development, namely, Luther’s justification for the necessity of opening schools and teaching children the basics of the Christian faith and consequently creation and implementation of the first school rules. The author shows continuity of ideas of the reformers and also reveals the features peculiar to the rules of the 16th century in the unique document of the Thirty years War era «Schulmethodus», compiled by the talented teacher and publisher Andreas Reyher, with the open patronage of Duke Saxe-Goth Ernst Pious. Thus, it can be concluded that Luther’s ideas on the development of education and the efforts of his colleagues (Johann Agricola, Philip Melanchthon, Johannes Bugenhagen, Johannes Brenz) on the introduction of school education in the German lands were not in vain and found their worthy continuation in the next century. Moreover, the system of school education, represented in «Schulmethodus» and successfully established in the Gotha school, was known and partly used in the first Moscow schools of the German settlement.
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Key words: Luther, Schulordnungen, school rules, Latin schools, German schools, Visitors’ instruction, Melanchthon, Bugenhagen, Ernst the Pious, Reyher, Schulmethodus, German settlement

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/poliakova-2017-en/

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How to speak to people about heresy? First prints against the Reformation in French (1520–1530)

Tatiana Debbagi Baranova, PhD in history, assistant professor, Paris-Sorbonne University (75230, France, Paris, 1 rue Victor Cousin)

debbagi_baranova@yahoo.fr

Debbagi Baranova Т. How to speak to people about heresy? First prints against the Reformation in French (1520–1530), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 182–207.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00010

Language: English

This article intends to address the ways of fighting against heresy in Catholic prints in French during 1520–1530s. The dominant position of the Catholic Church — formulated by the Faculty of Theology in Paris — was that the people had to be kept out of theological debate. On the one hand, the divines thought that public controversy in front of uneducated people — or even the description of the heresy -would contribute to the spread of Lutheran ideas or to the misunderstanding of the right doctrine. On the other hand, they needed to affirm their role as scholars and exclusive interpreters of Scripture. The Doctors of the Church wanted to limit the dissemination of heresy via preventive censorship, repression and theological controversy in Latin. However this proposal contradicted the need to warn the king, his entourage and the people of the danger posed by heretics. The Faculty of Theology authorised the publication of works which described heresy as an offence against God, his mother, the saints, and the whole Church, and which celebrated the repressive action of the political authorities. This description made the heresy identifiable without entering into theological argumentation. Furthermore, many anonymous works — songs, stories of miracles, defamatory poetry — condemned the heretics and their protectors. The king was the first target of these writings. However, towards the end of the 1530s, the success of the Lutheran doctrine persuaded the Doctors — such as Jerome de Hangest and Pierre Doré — of  the need to defend the attacks on the Church in French in order to strengthen the consciences of the faithful who were exposed to the danger of seduction in their daily lives. They tried then to share their arguments while asserting themselves as the only specialists able to lead theological reflexion.
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Key words: Luther, Lutherans, Reformation, Faculty of Theology, Church authority, religious polemic, miracle, public opinion

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/debbagi-baranova-2017-en/

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Confession and name: Male names of German Protestant nobility in the 16–17th centuries

Prokopiev Andrey Yur’evich, PhD, professor, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya linia, dom 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)

prokopiev65@mail.ru

Prokopiev A. Y. Confession and name: Male names of German Protestant nobility in the 16–17thcenturies, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 298–313.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00014

Language: Russian

The article deals with names given the 16–17th centuries ruling elite in order to study influence of the confessional and other factors on naming. The author focuses on the male names of Württemberg and Dresden rulers within period after the Augsburg Peace to the Thirty Years’ War. Concerning house of Württemberg, offspring of Duke Friedrich I (1558–1608) up to the children of the Duke Eberhard III are studied. Saxon house of Wettin is limited to children of Elector August I and their offsprings up to the heirs of Johann Georg II. The study involves a wide amount of archival materials and, in particular, the funeral sermons, made by confessors. Author concludes that most names were absolutely neutral, regardless to the elite faith. Luther called to stop the practice of christening in honor of the old saints in favor to biblical and old German names, but for his adherents from elite social class this question was hardly relevant. In contrast, a significant influx of new names from Catholic houses, especially obvious in the history of Württemberg, or reproduction of Moritz-name in Wettin family, demonstrate that naming was influenced by dynastic interests. In spite the importance of confessional consciousness in the period, family roots and dynastic course were to overcome confessional limits.
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Key words: confession, Reformation, the House of Wettin, the House of WürttembergLuther, naming

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/prokopiev-2014-en/

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Protestant theater of the 16–17th centuries as a historical and cultural phenomenon

Lurie Zinaida Andreevna, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Saint-Petersburg, Russia), zinaidalourie@gmail.com

Lurie Z. A. Protestant theater of the 16–17th centuries as a historical and cultural phenomenon, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 282–297.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00013

Language: Russian

The article discusses the phenomenon of the 16–17th centuries Protestant theater as a unique feature of the age. The author discusses the main characteristic of drama and performances and features out several steps of development of the Protestant scene. She makes an attempt to speak about the theater from the angle of its social role and its cultural relevance with same respect to its printed versions (Protestant drama) and visual and scene components. Protestant theater was an original phenomenon only in the first half of the 16th century, later dealing the stage with the Jesuits. Existed mainly as forms of public school theater (teachers were responsible for organization of city performances) both phenomena were invariants of confessional theater based on the humanist tradition. Since the second half of the 16th century such half-professional institutions were overshadowed by professional English and Italian troupes and Court Theater as well. However, in German lands with their sets of provincial cities school theater was an important social structure for a long time. Relevance of the article is in examination of the theatrical practice from various angels (its content and esthetics, occupation in propaganda, author’s social role and professional level). The researcher tries to avoid generalizations that are inherent to formal or instrumentalist approaches.
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Key words: Sixt Birk, Joachim Greff, Cornelius Crocus, Martin Luther, Melanchthon, Reformation, Humanism, theater

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2014-en/

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Lutheran preaching and drama: an attempt at a comparative typology

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie PhD-student, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya linia, dom 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034), z.lurie@spbu.ru; zlourie@gmail.com

Lurie Z. A. Lutheran preaching and drama: an attempt at  a comparative typology , Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2015, vol. 4, pp. 234–249.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2015-00011

Language: Russian

The article deals with formal and thematic peculiarities of the Lutheran sermon in its evolution as a prototype of other didactic genres. Biblical drama that appeared soon after the Reformation as  independent and prevailing type of dramatic works was in many aspect a rhetorical genre. That allows to make a consistent comparison between sermon and drama in the early Lutheran tradition. The author shows that thematically both literature genres were aimed at preaching of Law and Gospel. Ethical, political and social problems (ordo ecclesiasticusordo politiciis, ordo oeconomicus) composed an important part of confession didactic, especially, in Melanchton interpretation. However, they were valuable only in the light of Apocalyptical consciousness. All loci that were typical for the Lutheran sermon and, for example, were named by Melanchton in the Augsburg confession of 1531, also appear in dramatic works. Speaking of formal features, logic and structure, biblical drama seem to be orientated as well on the rhetorical model of Melanchton (epitrepticumparaeneticum and genus didascalicum) that fit the homiletical aims. All this make possible with more certainty to speak about Biblical drama as a part of phenomenological confessional model, reflected mainly in Luther Biblical translation and commentary.
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Key words: Melanchthon, Luther, confessionalisation, the Bible, Sixt Birck, Joachim Greff, Paul Rebhun, Tomas Naogeorgus, preaching, sermons, drama, theater

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2015-en/

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Alles Schicksal? Der Himmel als astrologische Auskunftei im Luthertum der Frühen Neuzeit

Walter Sparn, PhD in theology, professor, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Schloßplatz 4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany), ephorus, Martin Luthers Bund (Fahrstraße 15, Erlangen, Germany, 91054)

walter.sparn@t-online.de

Sparn W. Alles Schicksal? Der Himmel als astrologische Auskunftei  im Luthertum der Frühen Neuzeit, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2015, vol. 4, pp. 34–41.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2015-00003

Language: German

The article “All is Fortune? The sky as an astrology agency in the early modern time lutheranism” deals with attitude to astrology as part of the Lutheran intellectual culture of the 16–17th centuries. The author marks out two distinctive approaches to astrology that were, on the one hand, the interpretation of the planets position as the epitome of human lives, and, on the other hand, as sign of the future events. The last implies human actions with aim of correction and perfection of the picture presented in the sky. Luther himself didn’t engaged in astrology, but it fat perfectly his eschatological consciousness. Among other reformers and Lutheran priests (Michael Stiefel, Philipp Melanchthon, Abdias Trew, etc.) astrology was considered as necessary and honorable knowledge. Here the Melanchthon’s support of astrology in the treatise “Oratio de dignitate astrologia” 1535 was an important argument and is analyzed in detail by the author. Despite the overall empirical character of the 16–17th centuries science within astrology was widely condemned, there had been made several attempts to reform the area. In conclusion, the author analyses astrology in the context of general Christian eschatology.
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Key words: Luther, Melanchthon, Calvin, Ptolemy, Copernicus

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/sparn-w-2015-en/

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