On the theological aspect philosophical and educational project of J. A. Comenius: a view from the 21st century

Svetlana Markovna Marchukova Doctor in Pedagogy, Head of the Comeniology Section Saint-Petersburg Union of Scientists, Vice-Rector of the J. A. Comenius Research Pedagogical center, Gymnasium «Peterschule» (Zanevskiy prospekt, 53/2, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 195213)
marchukova@bk.ru

Marchukova S.M. On the theological aspect philosophical and educational project of J. A. Comenius: a view from the 21st century, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 116–153.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00014

Language: Russian

The methodological foundation of J. A. Comenius’ philosophicaland educational project often remains uncovered. The educational systemof the last bishop of the community of the Bohemian brothers, is knownfor its pragmatic orientation. It is an educational practice in which training and education are inseparable from religious experience. Man is calledto know the world and maintain order in it with the help of feeling, reasonand Revelation. This basic trichotomy of Comenius is repeatedly formulated and explained in his educational, didactic and methodological books.The early Modern Times period is the eve of the Enlightenment, whenknowledge secularized. The philosophy of Comenius — Christian pansophia, was designed to become «like a sacred ladder to ascent through allvisible things to the invisible summit of everything», seems at that period outdated and it forgotten for a long time. Contemporary researchersexplore the multidimensionality and metaphor of his works, their dialogical orientation in the context of his «biblical humanism». Surprisingly,the «biblical code» of his works helps to reveal the heuristic potentialof the theological aspect of the philosophical and educational project,which is considered today in the unity of pansophia and didactics.
The study was carried out with the financial support of the RussianFoundation for Basic Research within the framework of the scientificproject No. 19-013-00940/19 «Heuristic potential of the philosophicaland educational project of J. A. Comenius».

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Key words: pansophia, wisdom, school, humanism, Bible, physics, Melanchthon

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/marchukova-2020-en/

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«Instructions of the Visitors to Parishers in Electoral Saxony» by Philip Melanchthon: introductory article and the commented translation of the chapters «On everyday activities in churches» and «On schools»

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie PhD in History, assistant lecturer, Faculty of Foreign Languages, St. Petersburg State University (Universitetskaia nab., 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
z.lurie@spbu.ru

Mariya Aleksandrovna Polyakova PhD in Pedagogy, assistant professor, New Russian University (Zapadnaya ul., 9, str. 1, Moscow, Russia, 142181)
marussia71@yandex.ru

Lurie Z. A., Polyakova M. A. «Instructions of the Visitors to Parishers in Electoral Saxony» by Philip Melanchthon: introductory article and the commented translation of the chapters «On everyday activities in churches» and «On schools», Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 356–379.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00017

Language: Russian

This publication is the first Russian translation of excerpts from Philip Melanchthon’s «Instructions». The text established the normative order (Ordnung), which should have been followed locally, both in terms of dogma (which covers a significant part of the text: 14 of 18 articles), and of practical aspects of church life (general issues, liturgy, marriage, dispute about free will, the practice of church excommunication and the war with the Turks) and, finally, educational systems. Melanchton addressed his recommendations to evangelical ministers. School education, in accordance with the concept of Melanchthon, is strictly hierarchical and prepares citizens for various ministries. It is based on the study of languages and combines humanistic methods with catechesis. Melanchton divided the children into three classes, which also became the norm for Protestant charters. He also pays great attention to the practical aspects of church life, in particular to the liturgical reform. Melanchthon is quite interested in preaching as a catechetical, educational practice.

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Key words: Melanchthon, trivium schools, gymnasiums, cantorship, Luther, Reformation

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/lurie-polyakova-2010-en/

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Regulation of school work in the German rules of the confessional era and the first German schools in Moscow

Maria Alexandrovna Poliakova PhD in pedagogy, associate professor, Kaluga Branch of Bauman Moscow State Technical University (ulitsa Bazhenova, 2, Kaluga, Russia, 248000) , mariap71@rambler.ru

Poliakova M. A. Regulation of school work in the German rules of the confessional era and the first German schools in Moscow, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 318–343.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00016

Language: Russian

The article discusses the activities of Martin Luther and his associates in the field of educational development, namely, Luther’s justification for the necessity of opening schools and teaching children the basics of the Christian faith and consequently creation and implementation of the first school rules. The author shows continuity of ideas of the reformers and also reveals the features peculiar to the rules of the 16th century in the unique document of the Thirty years War era «Schulmethodus», compiled by the talented teacher and publisher Andreas Reyher, with the open patronage of Duke Saxe-Goth Ernst Pious. Thus, it can be concluded that Luther’s ideas on the development of education and the efforts of his colleagues (Johann Agricola, Philip Melanchthon, Johannes Bugenhagen, Johannes Brenz) on the introduction of school education in the German lands were not in vain and found their worthy continuation in the next century. Moreover, the system of school education, represented in «Schulmethodus» and successfully established in the Gotha school, was known and partly used in the first Moscow schools of the German settlement.
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Key words: Luther, Schulordnungen, school rules, Latin schools, German schools, Visitors’ instruction, Melanchthon, Bugenhagen, Ernst the Pious, Reyher, Schulmethodus, German settlement

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/poliakova-2017-en/

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Protestant theater of the 16–17th centuries as a historical and cultural phenomenon

Lurie Zinaida Andreevna, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Saint-Petersburg, Russia), zinaidalourie@gmail.com

Lurie Z. A. Protestant theater of the 16–17th centuries as a historical and cultural phenomenon, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 282–297.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00013

Language: Russian

The article discusses the phenomenon of the 16–17th centuries Protestant theater as a unique feature of the age. The author discusses the main characteristic of drama and performances and features out several steps of development of the Protestant scene. She makes an attempt to speak about the theater from the angle of its social role and its cultural relevance with same respect to its printed versions (Protestant drama) and visual and scene components. Protestant theater was an original phenomenon only in the first half of the 16th century, later dealing the stage with the Jesuits. Existed mainly as forms of public school theater (teachers were responsible for organization of city performances) both phenomena were invariants of confessional theater based on the humanist tradition. Since the second half of the 16th century such half-professional institutions were overshadowed by professional English and Italian troupes and Court Theater as well. However, in German lands with their sets of provincial cities school theater was an important social structure for a long time. Relevance of the article is in examination of the theatrical practice from various angels (its content and esthetics, occupation in propaganda, author’s social role and professional level). The researcher tries to avoid generalizations that are inherent to formal or instrumentalist approaches.
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Key words: Sixt Birk, Joachim Greff, Cornelius Crocus, Martin Luther, Melanchthon, Reformation, Humanism, theater

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2014-en/

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Lutheran preaching and drama: an attempt at a comparative typology

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie PhD-student, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya linia, dom 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034), z.lurie@spbu.ru; zlourie@gmail.com

Lurie Z. A. Lutheran preaching and drama: an attempt at  a comparative typology , Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2015, vol. 4, pp. 234–249.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2015-00011

Language: Russian

The article deals with formal and thematic peculiarities of the Lutheran sermon in its evolution as a prototype of other didactic genres. Biblical drama that appeared soon after the Reformation as  independent and prevailing type of dramatic works was in many aspect a rhetorical genre. That allows to make a consistent comparison between sermon and drama in the early Lutheran tradition. The author shows that thematically both literature genres were aimed at preaching of Law and Gospel. Ethical, political and social problems (ordo ecclesiasticusordo politiciis, ordo oeconomicus) composed an important part of confession didactic, especially, in Melanchton interpretation. However, they were valuable only in the light of Apocalyptical consciousness. All loci that were typical for the Lutheran sermon and, for example, were named by Melanchton in the Augsburg confession of 1531, also appear in dramatic works. Speaking of formal features, logic and structure, biblical drama seem to be orientated as well on the rhetorical model of Melanchton (epitrepticumparaeneticum and genus didascalicum) that fit the homiletical aims. All this make possible with more certainty to speak about Biblical drama as a part of phenomenological confessional model, reflected mainly in Luther Biblical translation and commentary.
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Key words: Melanchthon, Luther, confessionalisation, the Bible, Sixt Birck, Joachim Greff, Paul Rebhun, Tomas Naogeorgus, preaching, sermons, drama, theater

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2015-en/

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Alles Schicksal? Der Himmel als astrologische Auskunftei im Luthertum der Frühen Neuzeit

Walter Sparn, PhD in theology, professor, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Schloßplatz 4, 91054 Erlangen, Germany), ephorus, Martin Luthers Bund (Fahrstraße 15, Erlangen, Germany, 91054)

walter.sparn@t-online.de

Sparn W. Alles Schicksal? Der Himmel als astrologische Auskunftei  im Luthertum der Frühen Neuzeit, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2015, vol. 4, pp. 34–41.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2015-00003

Language: German

The article “All is Fortune? The sky as an astrology agency in the early modern time lutheranism” deals with attitude to astrology as part of the Lutheran intellectual culture of the 16–17th centuries. The author marks out two distinctive approaches to astrology that were, on the one hand, the interpretation of the planets position as the epitome of human lives, and, on the other hand, as sign of the future events. The last implies human actions with aim of correction and perfection of the picture presented in the sky. Luther himself didn’t engaged in astrology, but it fat perfectly his eschatological consciousness. Among other reformers and Lutheran priests (Michael Stiefel, Philipp Melanchthon, Abdias Trew, etc.) astrology was considered as necessary and honorable knowledge. Here the Melanchthon’s support of astrology in the treatise “Oratio de dignitate astrologia” 1535 was an important argument and is analyzed in detail by the author. Despite the overall empirical character of the 16–17th centuries science within astrology was widely condemned, there had been made several attempts to reform the area. In conclusion, the author analyses astrology in the context of general Christian eschatology.
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Key words: Luther, Melanchthon, Calvin, Ptolemy, Copernicus

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/sparn-w-2015-en/

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