Martydom of St. Marian and James: Introductory article, Russian translation and commentary

Alexey Vital’evich Kargaltsev, senior lecturer, TheologicalInstitute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (der. Kolbino, d. 25a, Leningrad region, Vsevolozhsk district, Russia, 188680)
kargaltsev@gmail.com

Kargaltsev A. V. Martydom of St. Marian and James: Introductory article, Russian translation and commentary, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 208–239.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00004

Language: Russian

The publication presents a translation of the early Christian hagiographic monument «The Martyrdom of Marian and Jacob» (Passio Sanctorum Mariani et Iacobi) (BHL 131–132) with comments and an introductory article, which dealt with the main issues of authenticity, dating and specifics of the text. The translation is based on the latest edition: The Martyrdom of Marian and James // The Acts of the Christian Martyrs / Ed. by H. Musurillo. Vol. 2. Oxford, 1972. p. 194–213. The focus of the introductory article lays on the problem of the Christian perception of prophetic visions. The work of the Roman authorities during the persecutions of Valerian is analyzed. The “Martyrdom” tells of the events in Numidia in the spring of 259, the history of the arrest, the suffering and the glory of the main characters – Marian and Jacob, and contains a lot of details, revealing the behavior of the Roman authorities and Christians during the persecution. This text is the only source that tells about the death of famous bishops: Agapius and Secundin. Finally, the text in a new way reveals the specifics of dreams and visions, which are one of the most important features of African hagiography. The text, written in exquisite rhetorized language, opens with traditional for African hagiography arguments about the high position of a martyr and about those heavenly rewards that are assumed to be accepted as suffering for Christ.

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Key words: North Africa, Numidia, martyrdom, early Church, Valerian, persecution

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/kargaltsev-2013-en/

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Montanism in Roman North Africe: Concerning the problem of martyrdom reflection

Alexey Vital’evich Kargaltsev, senior lecturer, Theological Institute of the Evangelical  Lutheran Church of Ingria (der. Kolbino, 25a, Leningrad region, Vsevolozhsk district, Russia, 188680)
kargaltsev@gmail.com

Kargaltsev A. V. Montanism in Roman North Africe: Concerning the problem of martyrdom reflection, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 116–132.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00011

Language: Russian

The article is devoted to the study of heresy of Montanism on the material of the Roman North Africa. The author comes to the conclusion that it is impossible to talk about the New Prophecy as a single phenomenon. A specific feature of Montanism in Africa was the addition of the veneration of martyrdom, traditional for the Phrygians ascetic. It is in this context that the «Phrygian heresy» can be viewed as the basis of disciplinary heresies and schisms in Africa. The article attempts to clarify to what extent the specific regional features that distinguish it from the «Phrygian heresy» manifested themselves in African Montanism. The question of the connection of the New Prophecy with Christian rigorism, especially with its radical form – voluntary martyrdom, is explained. It is possible to speak about the broadcasting of the Montanist sermon, which is different for Africa from the Phrygian form, it was less ecstatic, and as a result was less condemned. Retaining their main features: the election of “people of the spirit”, strict monogamy, worship of the Spirit Comforter, a surge of eschatological expectations, the Montanists hardly stood out against the background of the orthodox Christians. The reason for this was the fact that the church in Carthage was still being formed. In Africa, the strict asceticism of the Phrygians underwent a kind of transformation, and was supplemented with a special veneration of martyrdom. It is the context in which appropriate to speak of Montanism as the basis of subsequent disciplinary heresies and schisms.

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Key words: Phrygian heresy, martyrdom, North Africa, early church, schism, Carthage, Montanism

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/kargaltsev-a-v-2012-en/

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The Donatist hagiography and the Roman state

Andrei Leonidovich Mamontov PhD-student, the Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya linia, 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034) , almamontov1992@mail.ru

Mamontov A. L. The Donatist Hagiography and the Roman State, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 126–149.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00007

Language: Russian

With the Donatist hagiography being not well studied yet, especially in the Russian scholarship, the article attempts to fill the gap. Seven martyr stories are considered in the research, and some of them prove to be spuriously attributed to the dissident church (especially, The Passion of Cyprian). Other texts, undoubtedly Donatist, were written not by eye-witnesses (except, possibly, The Passion of Marculus), but after the actual martyrdom. These texts are notable for their fervent polemics against the Catholic Church («traitors») and the cruel assistant, the Roman state.
The author is particularly interested in the polemics against the Roman Empire. After the Constantinian revolution the pagan state turned into a Christian one, therefore we might expect from believers, even from Donatists, a certain «bonhomie» towards it. Still the Donatist church preferred the rhetoric of exclusion and filled their martyr stories with it. Military and civil servants were accused of cruelty, greediness, adultery, helping the false (Catholic) church, hating the true (Donatist) church, lawlessness and being employed by the devil.
Though some scholars suppose, that Donatists produced special political theology, criticizing secular interventions in religious affairs, the author concludes that dissidents themselves did not act fitting to such a theory. They used every chance to gain the help of the Empire. The polemics against it could have a more practical goal: to save the people from leaving the schism under pressure of the anti-donatist legislation.
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Key words: Donatism, hagiography, martyrs, North-African Christianity

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/mamontov-2017-en/

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The martyrdom of Montanus and Lucius: Introductory article, Russian translation and commentary

Kargaltsev Alexey Vital’evich, TheologicalInstitute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (Saint-Petersburg, Russia), kargaltsev@gmail.com

Kargaltsev A. V. The martyrdom of Montanus and Lucius: Introductory article, Russian translation and commentary, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 334–336.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00016

Language: Russian

The article gives a brief description and an annotated translation of the “Martyrdom of St. Montanus and Lucius” (Passio Sanctorum Montani et Lucii, BHL 6009). This interesting source of Roman North Africa created in time of Valerian persecution contains valuable information about the organization of the Christian community of Carthage, as well as its attitude towards martyrdom. It mentions several background characters, that also adds to its value. The text of the monument consists of two parts. The first (1–11) is a report of Christian presence of Christians in prison, apparently recorded by Flavian, while the second (12–23), composed by an anonymous author, tells of the death of Montanus, Lucius and their companions, as well as about the misadventures of the Flavian on the way to suffering. In spite of authenticity of the text being commonly recognized, the problem of the influence on it of other African hagiographical monuments is of big importance, because it contents a number of similar subject courses (visions of characters) and unique features (a huge youth in a gorgeous robe, stairs on the way to paradise, bowl with milk and so on). Another feature of the martyrdom is extensive use of biblical quotations exactly corresponded with Vulgate by Jerome. This, in turn, raises the question of editorial changes and the appearance of the text in general.
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Key words: Valerian, North Africa, hagiography, martyrdom, Flavian

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/kargaltsev-2014-en/

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