«Theology of liberation» ant its conception of World history

Krylov Pavel Valentinovich, PhD in history, Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences(Petrozavodskaja ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197110)

Krylov P. V. «Theology of liberation» ant its conception of World history, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 151–187.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00008

Language: Russian

The article analyses historiography characteristics of liberationists’ papers. «Theology of liberation» was shaped in 1970s and influenced by Marxism; its choice for the poor is caused by «social» reading of the Gospel. Theological speculations are based on «history». Historical Christ becomes a political figure and is contrasted to Western Christianity’s notion. Liberationists deliberately ideologize history, declaring the principle of impartiality to be bourgeois and thus untenable.

«Theology of liberation» favorably adapted an old idea of a special role of Latin America in the world history and transformed it into distinctive «Latin American socialism», that however differs from indigenismo. Dialogue with other non-Christian religions is popular. Latin America is the only Christian group of the so-called «Third World» nations, and this fact provides its special mission of mediation between Western theological tradition and most part of the non-Christian «Third World».

The author demonstrates historiographic terms are critically evaluated in liberationists’ language, especially those related to Spanish intrusion to Latin America after Columbus’s expedition. Such notions as political regime, liberty, development are also getting new connotations. Some theologians attempt to revise M. Luther’s view on the Peasants’ War, they emphasize the moderate attitude of U. Zwingli. The article names various pacific measures proposed for history teaching.

Deep impact of liberationist ideas on historical studies is guaranteed by mutual support among the liberationists, lack of criticism of both opponents and false teachings, furthermore, there are no efforts to have any hierarchy in the movement.

The author contrasts «theology of liberation» and neoliberal capitalism concluding that their discussion turns into the battle of ideological antagonists.

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Key words: «theology of liberation», liberationism, Latin America, L. Boff, G. Gutiérrez, K. Marx, M. Luther, pacifism, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/krylov-p-v-2012-en/

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Pope John XXIII in the mirror of Soviet press: to question of Pontifics personality perception in USSR

Sergey L’vovich Firsoff PhD in history, professor, Institute of Philosophy, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya linia, dom 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034), sfirsofff@mail.ru

Firsoff S. L. Pope John XXIII in the mirror of Soviet press: to question of pontifics pesonality perception in USSR, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2015, vol. 4, pp. 42–68.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2015-00004

Language: Russian

The article explores, how activities of Roman Pope John XXIII were reflected in the Soviet press. The author finds out, that there were two main approaches. While Vatican was understood as one of the centers of the international bourgeois and anticommunist reaction, the Pope was seen as an initiator of the disarming policy and pacifism. In the beginning of 1960s an outflow in the Russian press from anticlerical clichés was evident, and positive characteristic and even sympathy to the Pope were quite symptomatic. The author assumes, that the attitude of the Soviet press to the statements and activities of John XXIII mostly depended on the policy of the Soviet management and, especially, Nikita Khrushchev, who tried to use the authority of the Pope and, in particular, his antiwar rhetoric, to develop his own pacifistic propaganda in the background of foreign policy crisis of 1950–60s. Besides, the article explains reasons of the presence of the Russian Orthodox Church representatives as observers at the Second Vatican Council and clarifies its estimation of the Popes personality and politics.
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Keywords: Khrushchev, the Russian Orthodox Church, pacifism, anticlericalism, disarmament

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/firsoff-s-l-2015-en/

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