Philosophy and Theology in early Puritanism: William Ames’ Criticism of Metaphysic

Rodion Valentinovich Savinov PhD in Philosophy, senior lecturer, Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (Ulitsa Chernigovskaya, 5, St. Petersburg, Russia, 196084)
savrodion@yandex.ru

Savinov R. V. Philosophy and Theology in early Puritanism: William Ames’ Criticism of Metaphysic, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 380–404.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00018

Language: Russian

The article discusses the content of the «Theological Disputation against Metaphysics» by William Ames, one of the creators of Puritan theology. It is shown that Ames’ disputation against metaphysics and the line of his argumentation, firstly, goes back to  the scholastic discussions about the content of Corpus Aristotelicum, and secondly, is rooted in the criticism of secular knowledge that was given by the Reformers (Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon and others). Besides, it was a moment in the confessional debate with the project of the Catholic «natural theology», presented by Suarez’s treatises. At last, it substantiates a new understanding of human activity, associated primarily with the practical, rather than contemplating meaning of human life that reflects the characteristic of the Post-Reformation culture.

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Key words: Reformation, Metaphysics, Theology, Puritanism, Discussions, Early Modern

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/savinov-2019-en/

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Review on collect of Luther’s works «On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church» edited by Ivan Fokin (Saint-Petersburg, 2017)

Rodion Valentinovich Savinov PhD in Philosophy, senior lecturer Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (Chernigovskaya ulitsa, 5, Saint-Petersburg, 196084)
savrodion@yandex.ru

Savinov R. V. Review on collect of Luther’s works «On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church» edited by Ivan Fokin (Saint-Petersburg, 2017), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 296–317.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00015

Language: Russian

The author considers the collection of Martin Luther’s works, edited by Ivan Fokin, timed to the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. The review included description of the collection, and analysis of key texts from each section. An evaluation of this edition is suggested in the context of Russian research literature devoted to the Reformation and the early Modern.

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Key words: Luther, Reformation, Protestantism, Lutheranism, Anniversary of the Reformation, review

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/savinov-2018-en/

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Review on the book «The Oxford History of Anglicanism» (Oxford, 2017)

Anastasia Andreyevna Palamarchuk Doctor in History, senior lecturer, Department of Medieval History, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Universitetskaya naberezhnaya, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
a.palamarchuk@spbu.ru

Palamarchuk A. A. Review on the book «The Oxford History of Anglicanism» (Oxford, 2017), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 284–295.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00014

Language: Russian

The reviewed volume «The Oxford History of Anglicanism. Vol. 1. Reformation and Identity, с. 1520–1662 » (Ed. by A. Milton. Oxford, 2017) definitely is a seminal work on English ecclesiastical history. The concept of the Church of England as a «contested identity» and Anglicanism as a global cultural-historical phenomenon open a new perspective for the historians of the Church of England.

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Key words: Anglicanism, Church of England, Protestantism, Reformation, the Tudors, the Stuarts

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/palamarchuk-2018-en/

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Letters from Sixt Birck to Oswald Miconius of 1532-1536s: introductory article, Russian translation AND commentary

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie, assistant lecturer, Faculty of foreign languages, St. Petersburg State University (Universitetskaia nab., 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
z.lurie@spbu.ru

Lure Z. A. Letters from Sixt Birck to Oswald Miconius of 1532-1536s: introductory article, Russian translation AND commentary // Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 273–294.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00006

Language: Russian

The author cites the original text and Russian translation of the letters of the German playwright Sixt Birk to the Basel humanist Oswald Miconius written from the collection of the Zurich library. The introductory article introduces the reader to the biography of Birka, which is not well studied. The publication represents three of the four letters of the collection, which date from 1532–1536 (unpublished refers to 1548.). The material of the letters provides an opportunity for extensive generalizations related to the relationship of the intellectual with the urban elite during the confessionalization period. The published correspondence with Oswald Miconius reflects Birk’s attempt to acquire a patron in an intellectual environment. This was especially important for Birk at the beginning of his career, and it became especially relevant due to a personal conflict with one of his students. In 1536, apparently, having failed to completely overcome the conflict, Birk returned to Augsburg, where he probably hoped for a more benevolent attitude.

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Key words: Sixt Birck, Oswald Miconius, confessionalisation, Basel, Reformation, theater

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2013-en-2/

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The martyrdom of St. Stephan in Medieval and. Early Modern hagiography

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie, doctor of History, assistant lecturer, Faculty of foreign languages, St. Petersburg State University (Universitetskaia nab., 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
z.lurie@spbu.ru

Lure Z. A. The martyrdom of St. Stephan in Medieval and. Early Modern hagiography, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 185–206.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00001

Language: Russian

Despite the rather late development of the cult of the first martyr at the end of the 3rd – 4th centuries, it occupied an unusually important role in Christian rhetoric as an imitator of Christ. The article analyzes the references to the first deacon of the apologists and the early fathers of the Church (Clementus, Irenaeus, Augustine, etc.). In the medieval period, the regional traditions of veneration, on the one hand, and, on the other, the widespread presence of his worship in temples as one of the first deacons can’t be led to the single tendency of perception of the image. One of the recurring motives was the opposition of Stephen to the Jewish antagonists. During the Reformation, this antagonism was transferred to the realities of confessional confrontation, but the interest in the martyr was not great and even the influence of the Catholic renewal had a very limited effect on the iconography of Stefan. In turn, for the late Protestantism of the 1560–1590s. it was Stefan who turned out to be an iconic figure. The author examines the reasons for the popularity of the plot, analyzing the conflicts inherent in the book “Acts”, and illustrates the perception of the plot in the Lutheran tradition on the example of the tragedy of Melchior Neukirch in 1592, which completed a series of dramatic adaptations. The writer raised a number of extremely relevant topics for his time: the problem of tyranny and punishment of tyrants “for audacity”, and, equally, developed  the concept of an ideal world order, reflected also at the family level. No less significant theologian in the drama was the preaching of Christ.

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Key words: Stephan, hagiography, Reformation, Counterreformation, confessionalisation, Melchior Neukirch, theater, drama

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2013-en/

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The tribute of the University of Turku to the 500th anniversary of Reformation. Review of the monography «Pohjoinen Reformaatio» (Helsinki, 2016)

Pavel Valentinovich Krylov PhD in history, leading researcher, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of History (Petrozavodskaya ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, 197110) , pavel_kryloff@mail.ru

Krylov P. V. The tribute of the University of Turku to the 500th anniversary of Reformation. Review of the monography «Pohjoinen Reformaatio» (Helsinkii, 2016), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 418–424.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00021

Language: Russian

The review gives a brief of the book dedicated to the 500th anniversary of the Reformation mainly on the territory of Finland. The author considers the collective work of the Center for Middle Ages and Early Modern Studies at the University of Turku, as well as the Historical Society of Turku, gives an overview of the main content of the monograph and shares some reflections on it.
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Key words: Reformation, anniversary of Reformation, review, Finland, Lutheranism

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/krylov-2017-en/

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On the road with Luther: Thoughts on a few jubilee exhibitions

Jeffrey Chipps Smith PhD in art history, professor, The University of Texas at Austin, Depatment of Art and Art History (2301 San Jacinto Blvd, Austin, TX 78705, USA) , chipps@austin.utexas.edu

Smith J. Ch. On the Road with Luther: Thoughts on a Few Jubilee Exhibitions, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 388–405.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00019

Language: English

The 500th celebration of the advent of the Protestant Reformation inspired a remarkable number of exhibitions in Germany and, indeed, around the world. The Lutherjahr or Luther Year was, more correctly, a Luther decade with different themes and programs having been announced in 2008. The author explores the most remakable exibitions of 2015–2017 including «Martin Luther: Treasures of the Reformation», «Renaissance & Reformation: German Art in the Age of Dürer and Cranach», «Luther, Kolumbus und die Folgen. Welt im Wandel 1500–1600» as well as virtual exibitions that provide an unprecedented assessment of Luther, the cultural moment, and the historical aftermath.
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Key words: Renaissance, Reformation, Albrecht Dürer, art, Kolumbus, the Holbeins, the Cranachs, Hans Baldung Grien, Tilman Riemenschneider

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/smith-2017-en/

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John Bergius, a prominent figure of the Brandenburg Reformation

Mihkail Petrovich Beliaev, PhD in history, assistant professor, Russian University of cooperation, Faculry of Law (ulitsa Very Voloshinoy, 12/30, Mytishchi, Russia, 141014)

babek-han@mail.ru

Beliaev M. P. John Bergius, a prominent figure of the Brandenburg Reformation, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 260–283.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00013

Language: Russian

The Second Reformation in Brandenburg seriously differed from similar transformations in the other subjects of the Empire. The subjects of the Elector, John Sigismund, being Lutherans, were not compelled to switch to Calvinism, because Hohenzollern led tolerant policy. The article studies the role of John Bergius, who was a prominent ideologue of Calvinism and the leading court preacher of the Brandenburg Electors. Having received good education abroad, he laterly wrote many works on theology as an adherent of Irenism. The young theologian took part in the struggle against the Lutheran theologians and become the closest adviser of the Electors on religious matters. He defended the ideas of common root of Protestan theology and was for coorepation between the Lutherans and the Evangelists before the face of the Counter-reformation. The Brandenburg preacher developed the «constitutional theory of resistance», which justified the Emperor’s action in cooperation with the Catholic League as unleagel. The author shows that in these circumstances Lutheran theologians agreed to meet with Calvinist colleagues in Leipzig, during the Protestant princes convention. At this colloquium, thanks to the position of Bergius, it become possible to reach agreement on the most of issues. His late activity is also of high interest, because in 1630s he participated in the development of a new structure for the Brandenburg Church. Since 1640 Bergius being an adviser of th Elector Frederick William and participates in the colloquium in Thorne. He also was one of the authors of the final documents of the conferences in Leipzig and Thorne, which together with Confessio Sigismundi formed the official position of the Reformed Church of Brandenburg.
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Key words: Brandenburg, Calvinists, Reformed, Lutheran, Preacher, Church, Reformation

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/beliaev-2017-en/

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Pietro Paolo Vergerio —the first publisher of reformatory polemical works in Lithuania (1556)

Dainora Pociūtė PhD in humanities, professor Faculty of Philology, Vilnius University (Universiteto g. 5, Vedeja, Lietuva 01122) , dainora.pociute@flf.vu.lt

Pociūtė C. Pietro Paolo Vergerio — the first publisher of reformatory polemical works in Lithuania (1556), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 232–259.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00012

Language: Russian

The famous Italian reformer Pietro Paolo Vergerio (1498–1565) during his two trips to Lithuania, Poland and Prussia‘s Koenigsberg published a number of works important for the early period of the Reformation in this region, among which «Duae epistolae» (1556) occupies a special place. The publication contents the correspondence of the nuncio of Pope Luigi Lippomano with the ancestor of the Lithuanian Reformation Radziwill the Black (1515–1565), who here for the first time announced his conversion to the Protestant faith. Soon the translations of the two above-mentioned letters into German (1557) and Polish (1559) were published. The article analyzes the connections between Vergerio and Radziwill in a historical context, examines the content of the book and the main ideas of its main text, the answer of Radziwill to Lippomano.
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Key words: Pietro Paolo Vergerio, Reformation, Koenigsberg, Lithuania, Radziwill the Black, Luigi Lippomano

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/pocute-2017-en/

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Luther’s representations and interpretations in the early Modern age. The Italian case

Michela Catto PhD in history, assistant professor, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Viale Antonio Allegri 9, Palazzo Dossetti, Reggio Emilia, Italy, 42121) , michela.catto@unimore.it; michelacatto@gmail.com

Catto М. Luther’s representations and interpretations in the early Modern age. The Italian case, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 208–231.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00011

Language: English

In the present article we shall focus on the early radicalization in Italy of Luther’s and the Reformed world’s stereotypical image, quite distant from an actual knowledge of the doctrine.
Luther was associated with Niccolò Machiavelli and machiavellism. The Florentine secretary was referred to, and sometimes only hinted at, for the historiographical notion which attributed Italy’s backwardness in the processs of modernization to the decadence of its religion and coincidentally of its mores and morals. At first Machiavelli and Luther, sons of Satan both of them, were indicated as the main actors of the corruption of customs and, during the 18th century, the analysis was developed with examples supplied by the economic, social and political comparison with the countries where Reformation was adopted.
In the context of the Roman Church, the «Lutheran monster» will occasionally be pointed at as the source and origin of all kinds of disasters, of decadence of customs and doctrine. In different moments and situations therefore, the figure of Luther — and Calvin — became the causes of the doctrinal corruption effected by the Society of Jesus, the origin of Jansenism, of any policy opposing the papal power and hostile to religious institutions, and at last as the germ from which the worst modern doctrines were born: from atheims to libertinism and the Enlightenment.
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Key words: Calvin, Reformation, atheism, Machiavelli, Guicciardini, libertinism, Jansenism

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/catto-2017-en/

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