Сriticism of Рossibility of Natural Theology in William Ames’ «Disputatio theologica adversus ethicam» (Preface to the publication)

Rodion Valentinovich Savinov PhD in Philosophy, associate professor, Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (ulitsa Chernigovskaya, 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 196084)
savrodion@yandex.ru

Savinov R.V. Сriticism of Рossibility of Natural Theology in William Ames’ «Disputatio theologica adversus ethicam» (Preface to the publication), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 394–424.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00020

Language: Russian

The article analyses English Puritan theologian William Ames’«Disputatio theologica adversus ethicam» which contains criticismof Early Modern theology, in particular, the possibility of building ethicsindependent of both biblical Revelation and religious sources. RabbinicalJudaism and Catholicism are considered by William Ames as representativesof the concept of «traditions», socially established forms of religiosity. Amesseeks to show that these forms of worship are untrue, for they supplementthe biblical command with historically emerged customs, thereby violatingthe principle of sola Scriptura. The second mode of non-religious piety isrepresented by philosophical ethics, in particular, the Aristotle’s moraldoctrine, which was the basis of the ethical teachings of the Early ModernTimes, both Catholic and Protestant. The rationalism of Aristotelian ethicsand its immanent point of view to human morality are considered by Ames asa violation of the principle of sola fide, because ethics is based on the independentnature of man, which makes the principles of Revelation unnecessary. Amesconsiders biblical moral theology (the so-called Ethica Christiana) an alternativefor Scholasticism, which, on the one hand, integrates the basic principlesof philosophical ethics (the concept and varieties of virtues), and, on the otherhand, is based on the theological principle of holiness as the goal of human lifein the eyes of God (coram Deo). Thus, the theology of William Ames became analternative to the scholastic understanding of ethics and theology, and served asthe basis for new forms of describing religious experience in Puritanism of the17th century

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Key words: Reformation, Ethics, Theology, Puritanism, William Ames, Early Modern

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/savinov-2020-en/

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English Church design in its liturgical practice and belief through the centuries

Jerrald Lawson Master of Divinity, Theological Educator, TheologicalInstitute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (der. Kolbino, d. 25a, Leningrad region, Vsevolozhsk district, Russia, 188680)
jerrald.lawson@lcms.org

Lawson J. English Church design in its liturgical practice and belief through the centuries, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 294–307.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00012

Language: Russian

The article shares some reflections on the liturgical traditionsof the English Church. For more than a thousand years the English parish church had been the center of the Christian’s worship life. Its art andarchitecture reflected their beliefs, the Lex Orandi, Lex Credendi. Thebrief history of the development of the English ecclesiastical tradition isgiven from the early Middle ages till the Reformation. The author havingspent some years in England gives his view and estimations of the longChurch culture that is rooted in the medieval tradition despite the changesmade in the Reformation era.

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Key words: altar, Christ, green man, Rood cross, the Reformation

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/ru/loursen-2020-en/

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On the peculiarities of Martin Luther’s exegesis

Alekaey Vital’evich Kargaltsev PhD in History, senior lecturer, Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (naberezhnaya reki Moiki, 48/20a, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 191186)
akargaltsev@herzen.spb.ru

Kargaltsev A.V. On the peculiarities of Martin Luther’s exegesis, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 32–55.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00004

Language: Russian

The article is devoted to the exegetical approaches of Martin Lutherand his contemporaries in the context of Latin patristics and its reception by humanists of the 15–16th centuries. The Latin patristic heritageplayed a huge role in theological debate and reflection in the early 16th century. It was a truly new life-giving stream, which, thanks to the publishing and research work of humanists, gave food to the theological thoughtof the era. The new level of accessibility and relevance of patristic theology was associated with the controversy unfolding between humanistsand scholastics, the general idea of a return to the origins of the earlyChurch. At the same time, the wide availability of new editions of the worksof early Christian writers, the emergence of critical retellings and comments, primarily made by Erasmus, real, and not nominal, acquaintancewith the patristic tradition led to a completely different assessment of it.Luther’s Christ-centered exegesis, in general, much more traditional thanhumanistic exegesis, had its own characteristics: the question arose aboutthe value of the Law, the value of the letter and moralistic edification assuch, declared in the well-known antinomian dispute with Johann Agricola. Augustine and other Latin fathers often make mistakes in their assessment of Luther, too freely handling allegory and abusing it or, on the contrary, deviating into literalism. Luther’s exegesis is based, as he himselfwrote, not some kind of exegetical authority, but Holy Scripture, whichinterprets itself.

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Key words: humanism, reformation, exegesis, Erasmus von Rotterdam, Lefevre D’Etaples

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/kargaltsev-2020-en/(откроется в новой вкладке)

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Philosophy and Theology in early Puritanism: William Ames’ Criticism of Metaphysic

Rodion Valentinovich Savinov PhD in Philosophy, senior lecturer, Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (Ulitsa Chernigovskaya, 5, St. Petersburg, Russia, 196084)
savrodion@yandex.ru

Savinov R. V. Philosophy and Theology in early Puritanism: William Ames’ Criticism of Metaphysic, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 380–404.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00018

Language: Russian

The article discusses the content of the «Theological Disputation against Metaphysics» by William Ames, one of the creators of Puritan theology. It is shown that Ames’ disputation against metaphysics and the line of his argumentation, firstly, goes back to  the scholastic discussions about the content of Corpus Aristotelicum, and secondly, is rooted in the criticism of secular knowledge that was given by the Reformers (Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon and others). Besides, it was a moment in the confessional debate with the project of the Catholic «natural theology», presented by Suarez’s treatises. At last, it substantiates a new understanding of human activity, associated primarily with the practical, rather than contemplating meaning of human life that reflects the characteristic of the Post-Reformation culture.

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Key words: Reformation, Metaphysics, Theology, Puritanism, Discussions, Early Modern

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/savinov-2019-en/

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Review on collect of Luther’s works «On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church» edited by Ivan Fokin (Saint-Petersburg, 2017)

Rodion Valentinovich Savinov PhD in Philosophy, senior lecturer Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (Chernigovskaya ulitsa, 5, Saint-Petersburg, 196084)
savrodion@yandex.ru

Savinov R. V. Review on collect of Luther’s works «On the Babylonian Captivity of the Church» edited by Ivan Fokin (Saint-Petersburg, 2017), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 296–317.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00015

Language: Russian

The author considers the collection of Martin Luther’s works, edited by Ivan Fokin, timed to the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. The review included description of the collection, and analysis of key texts from each section. An evaluation of this edition is suggested in the context of Russian research literature devoted to the Reformation and the early Modern.

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Key words: Luther, Reformation, Protestantism, Lutheranism, Anniversary of the Reformation, review

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/savinov-2018-en/

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Review on the book «The Oxford History of Anglicanism» (Oxford, 2017)

Anastasia Andreyevna Palamarchuk Doctor in History, senior lecturer, Department of Medieval History, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Universitetskaya naberezhnaya, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
a.palamarchuk@spbu.ru

Palamarchuk A. A. Review on the book «The Oxford History of Anglicanism» (Oxford, 2017), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 284–295.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00014

Language: Russian

The reviewed volume «The Oxford History of Anglicanism. Vol. 1. Reformation and Identity, с. 1520–1662 » (Ed. by A. Milton. Oxford, 2017) definitely is a seminal work on English ecclesiastical history. The concept of the Church of England as a «contested identity» and Anglicanism as a global cultural-historical phenomenon open a new perspective for the historians of the Church of England.

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Key words: Anglicanism, Church of England, Protestantism, Reformation, the Tudors, the Stuarts

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/palamarchuk-2018-en/

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Letters from Sixt Birck to Oswald Miconius of 1532-1536s: introductory article, Russian translation AND commentary

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie, assistant lecturer, Faculty of foreign languages, St. Petersburg State University (Universitetskaia nab., 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
z.lurie@spbu.ru

Lure Z. A. Letters from Sixt Birck to Oswald Miconius of 1532-1536s: introductory article, Russian translation AND commentary // Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 273–294.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00006

Language: Russian

The author cites the original text and Russian translation of the letters of the German playwright Sixt Birk to the Basel humanist Oswald Miconius written from the collection of the Zurich library. The introductory article introduces the reader to the biography of Birka, which is not well studied. The publication represents three of the four letters of the collection, which date from 1532–1536 (unpublished refers to 1548.). The material of the letters provides an opportunity for extensive generalizations related to the relationship of the intellectual with the urban elite during the confessionalization period. The published correspondence with Oswald Miconius reflects Birk’s attempt to acquire a patron in an intellectual environment. This was especially important for Birk at the beginning of his career, and it became especially relevant due to a personal conflict with one of his students. In 1536, apparently, having failed to completely overcome the conflict, Birk returned to Augsburg, where he probably hoped for a more benevolent attitude.

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Key words: Sixt Birck, Oswald Miconius, confessionalisation, Basel, Reformation, theater

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2013-en-2/

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The martyrdom of St. Stephan in Medieval and. Early Modern hagiography

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie, doctor of History, assistant lecturer, Faculty of foreign languages, St. Petersburg State University (Universitetskaia nab., 7/9, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
z.lurie@spbu.ru

Lure Z. A. The martyrdom of St. Stephan in Medieval and. Early Modern hagiography, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 185–206.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00001

Language: Russian

Despite the rather late development of the cult of the first martyr at the end of the 3rd – 4th centuries, it occupied an unusually important role in Christian rhetoric as an imitator of Christ. The article analyzes the references to the first deacon of the apologists and the early fathers of the Church (Clementus, Irenaeus, Augustine, etc.). In the medieval period, the regional traditions of veneration, on the one hand, and, on the other, the widespread presence of his worship in temples as one of the first deacons can’t be led to the single tendency of perception of the image. One of the recurring motives was the opposition of Stephen to the Jewish antagonists. During the Reformation, this antagonism was transferred to the realities of confessional confrontation, but the interest in the martyr was not great and even the influence of the Catholic renewal had a very limited effect on the iconography of Stefan. In turn, for the late Protestantism of the 1560–1590s. it was Stefan who turned out to be an iconic figure. The author examines the reasons for the popularity of the plot, analyzing the conflicts inherent in the book “Acts”, and illustrates the perception of the plot in the Lutheran tradition on the example of the tragedy of Melchior Neukirch in 1592, which completed a series of dramatic adaptations. The writer raised a number of extremely relevant topics for his time: the problem of tyranny and punishment of tyrants “for audacity”, and, equally, developed  the concept of an ideal world order, reflected also at the family level. No less significant theologian in the drama was the preaching of Christ.

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Key words: Stephan, hagiography, Reformation, Counterreformation, confessionalisation, Melchior Neukirch, theater, drama

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2013-en/

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The tribute of the University of Turku to the 500th anniversary of Reformation. Review of the monography «Pohjoinen Reformaatio» (Helsinki, 2016)

Pavel Valentinovich Krylov PhD in history, leading researcher, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of History (Petrozavodskaya ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, 197110) , pavel_kryloff@mail.ru

Krylov P. V. The tribute of the University of Turku to the 500th anniversary of Reformation. Review of the monography «Pohjoinen Reformaatio» (Helsinkii, 2016), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 418–424.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00021

Language: Russian

The review gives a brief of the book dedicated to the 500th anniversary of the Reformation mainly on the territory of Finland. The author considers the collective work of the Center for Middle Ages and Early Modern Studies at the University of Turku, as well as the Historical Society of Turku, gives an overview of the main content of the monograph and shares some reflections on it.
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Key words: Reformation, anniversary of Reformation, review, Finland, Lutheranism

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/krylov-2017-en/

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On the road with Luther: Thoughts on a few jubilee exhibitions

Jeffrey Chipps Smith PhD in art history, professor, The University of Texas at Austin, Depatment of Art and Art History (2301 San Jacinto Blvd, Austin, TX 78705, USA) , chipps@austin.utexas.edu

Smith J. Ch. On the Road with Luther: Thoughts on a Few Jubilee Exhibitions, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 388–405.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00019

Language: English

The 500th celebration of the advent of the Protestant Reformation inspired a remarkable number of exhibitions in Germany and, indeed, around the world. The Lutherjahr or Luther Year was, more correctly, a Luther decade with different themes and programs having been announced in 2008. The author explores the most remakable exibitions of 2015–2017 including «Martin Luther: Treasures of the Reformation», «Renaissance & Reformation: German Art in the Age of Dürer and Cranach», «Luther, Kolumbus und die Folgen. Welt im Wandel 1500–1600» as well as virtual exibitions that provide an unprecedented assessment of Luther, the cultural moment, and the historical aftermath.
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Key words: Renaissance, Reformation, Albrecht Dürer, art, Kolumbus, the Holbeins, the Cranachs, Hans Baldung Grien, Tilman Riemenschneider

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/smith-2017-en/

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