Biblical Stories in the Funeral Sermons of the Electors of the Palatinate of the second half of the 16th century

Natal’ya Aleksandrovna Berezhnaya phd in history, senior lecturer, Saint-Petersburg State University,Institute of History, (5 Mendeleevskaya liniya, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
n.berezhnaya@spbu.ru, natalialandi@mail.ru

Berezhnaya Ν. Α. Biblical Stories in the Funeral Sermons of the Electors of the Palatinate of the second half of the 16th century, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2023, vol. 12, pp. 128–155.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2023-12-128-155

Language: Russian

The 16–17th centuries are rightly considered the heyday of the genre of funeral sermons in Germany, although the tradition of reading the «Funeral Oration» existed back in the Middle Ages. Funeral sermons were of particular importance in the evangelical tradition: they emphasized the fidelity of the deceased to the «true Christian doctrine» and the triumph of the Gospel in the principality, and also played the role of additional teaching aids — in theology, grammar, history. Since the sermon was the main element of these texts, it is necessary to consider which biblical stories and which biblical heroes were emphasized by Protestant theologians in constructing the images of their princes.
The article analyzes what ideas the individual stories were meant to illustrate, what the theologians’ motives were — and, eventually, whether there were differences in the choice of Bible stories between Lutheran and Calvinist funeral sermons. The Palatinate funeral sermons are representative because in the second half of the 16th century in the Electorate of the Palatinate the «official» creed changed several times from Evangelical to Reformed. This gives us the opportunity to study both emerging memorial traditions.

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Key words: biblical subjects, funeral sermons, electors of the Palatinate, evangelical doctrine, Reformed doctrine

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/en-bereghnaja-2023/

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The Formation of the Evangelical Confession in Germany: Melanchthon and religious polemics in the middle of the 16th century

Natal’ya Aleksandrovna Berezhnaya PhD of History, senior lecturer, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
n.berezhnaya@spbu.ru, natalialandi@mail.ru

Berezhnaya N. A. The Formation of the Evangelical Confession in Germany: Melanchthon and religious polemics in the middle of the 16th century, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 216–253.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00012

Language: Russian

The present article examines the formation of the evangelical denomination in Germany for fifteen years after the death of Martin Luther. The author analyses the relationship and dogmatic disagreements between  Luther and Philipp Melanchthon, Melanchthon’s activities as a leader of German Protestants, his attempts to create a new formula of dogma, which was to unite the supporters of the two versions of the Augsburg Confession, unaltered and altered, and the Gnesio-Lutherans. In addition, the author notes the communication of Melanchthon with the princely elite of Protestant Germany. These communications are of interest, since it was the authority of the imperial princes that helped the theologian lead the Evangelical Church. The main subject of internal protestant discussions in the second half of the 1540–1550s were the adiaphora and the Eucharist. The GnesioLutherans accused Melanchthon of «cryptocalvinism» because of the peculiarities of his views on the Eucharist, and also because of his unwillingness to refuse Calvin in response to the proposal to unite the evangelical and reformist confession. However, Luther himself did not require his comrade to renounce his views, that is, he did not consider them an error. GnesioLutheran theologians would have found it difficult to accuse Melanchthon of apostasy if not for his position on the issue of adiaphora and for the support of the Elector Moritz of Saxony.

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Key words: Philipp Melanchthon, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Evangelical Church, Gnesio-Lutherans, Reformed tradition, Adiaphora, Eucharist

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/berejhnaya-2019-en/

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