On cultural typology and peculiarities of religious praxis

Vladimir Yur’evich Lebedev, Doctor in philosophy, professor, the Tver’ State University (ulitsa Ghjelyabova, 33, Tver’, Russia, 170023)
semion.religare@yandex.ru

Lebedev V. J. On cultural typology and peculiarities of religious praxis, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 39–51.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00012

Language: Russian

The paper examines structural parallelisms between types of socio-cultural patterns and aspects of religious praxis that are integral to the sphere of social practices.

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Key words: socio-cultural type, laminarity, dominance, polarization, amorphousness, religion, praxis

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lebedev-2013-en/

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The gnosiological aspect of religion

Alexey Igorevich Ivanenko, PhD in Philosophy, assistant professor, Theological Institute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (der. Kolbino, 25a, Leningrad region, Vsevolozhsk district, Russia, 188680)
iwanenkoalexy@hotmail.com

Ivanenko A. I. The gnosiological aspect of religion, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 78–86.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00016

Language: Russian

The article is devoted to epistemological aspects of religion. Following Hegel, the author maintains that religion in one of spiritual form as well as art and science. This method allows to keep distance between clericalism and atheism. Extreme positions are the following: religion is the only expression of truth; religion is a false form of consciousness. The first position denies rational investigation of religion. The second position denies the object of investigation. On the base of contradiction between science and religion, the author maintains that religion has non-scientific truth, which suggest other form of verification. Religion expresses itself in faith and worship, but more necessary are its moral components, which are based on so called Revelation. However, religion is not only moral teaching. But moral component is a normative foundation of society, culture and civilization, which can be studies rationally. Law bases on normative foundation and regulates connection between people. Religious truth has civil aspect, because of question of access to cultural monuments and of mass celebrations. Religious truth correlates with cultural effects, which it expresses. This truth can make a difference between churches and sects.

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Key words: religion, gnosiology, truth, faith

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/ivanenko-2013-en/

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Psychology of ritual and magic

Grigorenko Andrey Yur’evich, PhD in philosophy, professor, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Moika Embankment, dom 48, korpus 20a, St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186)
relig-rgpu@yandex.ru

Grigorenko A. Yu. Psychology of ritual and magic, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2013, vol. 2, pp. 12–20.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2013-00013

Language: Russian

The article analyses psychology of magic and religion. The ritual behavior of both animals and men is investigated.

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Key words: magic, ritual, religion, psychology, physiology, ethology, animal, man

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/grigorenko-2013-en/

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On the question of several religious terms

Anatoliy Kirillovich Pogasiy, PhD in history, professor, Kazan Institute, Eastern Academy of Economics, Law and Humanities (ulica Jurnalistov, dom 6a, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420029)
kazan_prihod@mail.ru

Pogasiy A. K. On the question of several religious terms, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 35–49.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00007

Language: Russian

Specifics of religious terminology is that it is called in the field of human consciousness and the world comprehended by human intelligence to fix concepts phenomenal that can’t be realized by human reason. The article is devoted to a problem of interpretation of some Christian terms.

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Key words: religion, Christianity, term, theology, Church

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/pogasiy-a-k-2012-en/

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«Religious situation in the Northwestern economic region of Russia and in the Baltic States: traditions and the present»: Review

Grigorenko Andrey Yur’evich, PhD in philosophy, professor, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Moika Embankment, dom 48, korpus 20a, St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186)
relig-rgpu@yandex.ru

Grigorenko A. Yu.«Religious situation in the Northwestern economic region of Russia and in the Baltic States: traditions and the present»: Review, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 180–194.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00004

Language: Russian

The article analyses the content and strategy of the scientific journal «Religious situation of Russia and in Baltic States», based on papers of the international conferences «Religious situation in the Northwestern economic region of Russia and in the Baltic States: traditions and the present».

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Key words: God, freedom, religion, confession, religious situation, state, social institute

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/grigorenko-a-yu-2-en/

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Classical German Philosophy as a theoretical source of modern religious studies

Grigorenko Andrey Yur’evich, PhD in philosophy, professor, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Moika Embankment, dom 48, korpus 20a, St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186)
relig-rgpu@yandex.ru

Grigorenko A. Yu. Classical German Philosophy as a theoretical source of modern religious studies, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp.12–21.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00013

Language: Russian

The author evaluates the contribution made by Classical German Philosophy to religious studies that became a separate discipline. The case of nature and origin of magic is examined.

Immanuel Kant was the first to draw attention to the specific character of magic. The difference between Christianity and early forms of religious consciousness was viewed by him as mere formal, not a matter of principle. According G. W. F. Hegel, the primitive religious stage was the religion of nature. It should be characterized mostly not by fear but by human self-assurance in absolute dominion over nature. The «spirit» (taken as an instrument) was set above matter. G. W. F. Hegel distinguished the stages of direct and mediate sorcery. Objectivation of the universal was the third stage; further development would have made a man an instrument of a higher being. G. W. F. Hegel anticipated scholars’ conclusions about instrumental theory of magic (20th C.). It was proposed that magic had been used to supply human actions with primitive tools, because the result was not assured and foreseeable. In the article, G. W. F. Hegel is called a founder of «cognitive religious studies.» There is a view that a primitive man understood cause and effect, natural phenomena incorrectly. The philosopher defined sorcery as the first savage form of religion that should not be virtually called as such, since religion does not imply human power and might. L. Feuerbach concurred with this view and defined magic as «nonreligious form of religion» for in religion itself the power was thought to be transferred to something beyond human beings.

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Key words: religious studies, magic, sorcery, I. Kant, G. W. F. Hegel, L. Feuerbach, J. Frazer

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/grigorenko-a-yu-2012-en/

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Dialectics of religious renovation: secular and Christian views

Dmitriy Alexandrovich Golovushkin, PhD in history, associate professor Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (naberezhnaya reki Moiki, 48/20a, Saint-Petersburg, Russia,191186)

golovushkinda@mail.ru

Golovushkin D. A. Dialectics of religious renovation: secular and Christian views, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 108–124.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00006

Language: Russian

The article attempts to speculate on two topical issues of the modern socio-cultural and religious dynamics: religious renovation of the modernity and it relation to the religious renovation in general. These issues are relatively independent, but at the same time they are inseparable since the format of future socio-cultural community depends on their correlation. In other words, any discussion on this topic rests on the following questions: is it acceptable to reduce the religious renovation of the modernity only to a «turn to religion» or «return of religion»; what gives the right to form the ethos or does the religious renovation of the modernity involve renovation of religion, intensification of theological self-reflection and new forms of religious reformation?
As the secular and Christian discourse at the turn of the 20–21st centuries indicates, the religious renovation of the modernity is conceptualized as the religion’s social action strategy that concedes an inclusion of religious and non-religious ideologies and worldviews into this process. It rises up from the religious renovation as a version of the religious reformation and combines elements of religious fundamentalism and religious modernism, that interact and creatively re-construct under the secular influence and thus convert the religious tradition. As a result, the religious renovation of the modernity and the religious renovation close on each other. It is a kind of a cultural «middle way» that lies between the religious tradition and innovation and focuses on development of alternative options of the social development.
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Key words: religion, religious reformation, religious modernism, religious fundamentalism, religious tradition, secularism, secularization, postsecularization

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/golovushkin-2017-en/

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On the temporal specific of religious ritual

Prilutskiy Aleksandr Michaylovich, PhD, professor, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (St. Petersburg, Russia), alpril@mail.ru

Prilutskiy A. M. On the temporal specific of religious ritual, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 18–33.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00002

Language: Russian

The article focuses on the study of the category of time in the discourse of ritual. In spite of religious ritual being well-studied, its semiotic structure lacks analyzes. Contemporary study of ritual in terms of ethnography and anthropology should be supplemented with the concepts of theology and philosophy of religion. In order to examine essence of internal time of ritual scholars should use not only ethnographical methods, but ones of theology and semiotics. The author argues that internal time of ritual acts not only as a context in which ritual reveals its important elements, but has an independent value. In the text of ritual, as well as in other types of texts, internal time is transmitted through a variety of methods and generated at different textual levels — grammatical, lexical, philosophical and theological. Symbolic language of ritual is also manifested at different levels and can be expressed through a variety of discursive and over-discursive elements. Category of time in ritual can also be expressed symbolically. So, the author states that internal time of ritual is not a single continuum: both linguistic and ontological time construct internal time of the text, which is the product of their dialectical correlation. Ritual builds a unique time model, where sacred past and sacred future don’t correspond with any ordinary or grammatical time.
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Key words: ritual, semiotics, God, religion, literature, text

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/prilutskiy-2014-en/

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Roman rite of devotio and Early Christian martyrdom: a comparative study

Andrey Vladimirovich Vasil’ev PhD in history, The Classical Gymnasium of St. Petersburg, School N 610 (Maluy prospect Petrogradskoy storonu, dom 9, corpus 6, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197198), Ander-Vaas@yandex.ru

Vasil’ev A. V. Roman rite of devotio and Early Christian martyrdom: a comparative study, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2015, vol. 4, pp. 116–135.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2015-00007

Language: Russian

The rite of the self-devotion of a Roman together with the enemy’s army to the infernal gods for the sake of victory occurred twice in the Roman history and both times was connected with the Decii family. The religious meaning of this rite is still discussed. Some historians consider it as one of the typical vows (votum), a sort of a promise to bring the gods one’s life instead of the victory over the enemy. Others think it was a self-consecration (consecratio) of a Roman general. The author represents some contemporary interpretations of the rite. He also marks out some details that might help to comprehend this ritual as a particular and individual one and make it impossible to attribute it to one of the known types of Roman religious rites. Besides, the paper deals with some features in the ancient authors’ descriptions of this rite that draw it together with the phenomenon of the Early Christian martyrdom, well-known from the hagiographic literature and other Christian writings of the 1st–3rd  centuries. The ideas of sacrifice and glory which is attained through the sacrifice are present in the descriptions of the both forms of the death with dignity. Both phenomena can be characterized by accompanying afflatus and the transformation of the person influenced by the forthcoming voluntary death. Aristocratic character of the devotio ritual wasn’t an obstacle for the use of its image by the Christian writers. This may prove that the Early Christian community was quite familiar with the  ancient culture. Comparing two forms of self-sacrifice the author concludes that they were characterized by the common motive of the individual choice which was usual for different forms of “noble death” in antiquity.
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Key words: Rome, religion, devotio, Early Christianity, martyrdom

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/vasilev-2015-en/

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