Status and Development of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Latvia from 1918 to 2018. An Outline

Jouko Talonen Professor (emeritus), Doctor of Τheology University of Helsinki, Faculty of Theology (Ulrikankuja 6 B 41, Vantaa, Suomi, 01400)
jouko.talonen@helsinki.fi

Talonen J. Status and Development of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Latvia from 1918 to 2018. An Outline, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2023, vol. 12, pp. 232–276.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2023-12-232-276

Language: Russian

The history of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Latvia (ELCL) from 1918 to 2018 is analysed. During the first period of independence (1918– 1940), the ELCL was the church of the majority of the population (55–57%). Quite positive was the period of the Kārlis Ulmanis’s rule. In Soviet Latvia in 1940–1941 and 1944–1987, the church was a persecuted and marginalized faith community. Efforts of Gustavs Turs (1890–1973), the «Red Archbishop», didn’t prevent the church decline. In 1987 the church had only 25,000 active members (about 1% of the population of the Soviet Republic). However, the straightforward estimation of the statistics if troublesome.
In the last years of communism, the church received new operational freedoms from the end of the 1980s onward. After Latvia became independent, the church’s activities continued to develop. However, there was no return to the National Church. However, the ELCL’s forms of work became more and more versatile starting in the 1980s. The Church’s theological profile has been conservative. This has been seen, among other things, in its solid relationship with the Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod in America, and in the fact that the church has stopped ordaining women.

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Key words: Eucharist, liturgy, reform, Bible, righteousness, Trinity

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/en-talonen-2023/

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The essence and theology of worship. The history, evaluation and theology of the Mass in the Book of Divine Services approved by the Church of Finland in 2000

Seppo Suokunnas professor (emeritus), doctor of theology University of Helsinki, Faculty of Theology (Ulrikankuja 6 B 41, Vantaa, Suomi, 01400)
sisuokunnas@elisanet.fi

Suokunnas S. Jumalanpalveluksen olemus ja teologia. Messun historiaa, arviointia ja teologiaa Suomen kirkon v. 2000 hyväksytyn Jumalanpalvelusten kirjan äärellä, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2023, vol. 12, pp. 156–178.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2023-12-156-178

Language: Russian

In the article «Jumalanpalveluksen olemus ja teologia. Messun historiaa, arviointia ja teologiaa Suomen kirkon v. 2000 hyväksytyn Jumalanpalvelusten kirjan äärellä» is analysed the reform of worship in Finland in the 1990s. The main question was what could be changed in Lutheran worship and liturgy without distorting the basic content of the faith. The task was set to make worship more free and modern and to cover national liturgical experience. During the work of the committee, various orders of Lutheran worship were analyzed and some conclusions were drawn. The author addresses these issues and gives an assessment of the liturgical reforms carried out. He considers righteousness by faith to be the main criterion for reforming liturgy, and, therefore, greater freedom of the liturgical order is achievable, which at one time was reflected in the preface to the German Mass by Martin Luther (Deutsche Messe). In addition, it is emphasized that the fundamental content of the liturgy is the doctrine of the Trinity. The article also analyzes how the Finnish Reference Book Committee has expanded the use of the Bible in worship services.

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Key words: Eucharist, liturgy, reform, Bible, righteousness, Trinity, epiclesis

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/en-suokkunas-2023/

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What is forensic/declared in justification, according to the Lutheran viewpoint?

Sergey Aleksandrovich Isaev, PhD in history, principal scientist, Saint-Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences(Petrozavodskaja ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197110)
isayevsviir@yandex.ru

Isaev S. A. What is forensic/declared in justification, according to the Lutheran viewpoint?, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 91–98.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00003

Language: Russian

What is forensic/declared in justification, according to the Lutheran viewpoint?

It was just in polemics with Andreas Osiander when the Lutheran viewpoint of justification was worked out as «declared». Based on his experience while writing his articles for the Orthodox Encyclopedia, the author compares Russian and Latin texts of the relevant articles in the Defense of the Augsburg Confession and the Formula of Concord, as well as John Theodore Mueller’ Christian Dogmatics. The article examines the terms and outlines the Orthodox and Catholic viewpoints.

The author sums up interpretation of the Lutheran dogma: justification and imputation are actual, not declarative. Righteousness in the sense of impeccancy is declarative, but it is also actual in the sense of justification. Accordingly, solely impeccancy and capability for expiation of one’s own sinfulness with his or her deeds and merits are declarative. The Lutheran viewpoint is entirely different from that of Catholic and Orthodox churches and yet is reductive or distorted in various handbooks on religious studies.

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Key words: justification, righteousness, sinfulness, imputation, the Defense of the Augsburg Confession, the Formula of Concord, comparative theology

Key words: Confessio Augustiana, Lutheranism, innocence

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/isaev-s-a-2012-en/

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