Octagonal Roman columned ciboriums of the 12th century: origin of the form

Natalia Sergeevna Kuznetsova postgraduate student, Moscow State University after M. V. Lomonosov, Faculty of History (Lomonosovskiy prospekt, 27/4, Moscow, 119192)
natik.ne@mail.ru

Kuznetsova N.S. Octagonal Roman columned ciboriums of the 12th century: origin of the form, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 276–293.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00008

Language: Russian

Among the monuments of Roman Church architecture of the12–13th centuries there are several special basilicas. Their altar spaces havepreserved elements of the High Middle Ages design. These includethe octagonal ciboriums from the basilicas San Giorgio in Velabro and SanLorenzo Fuori Le Mura in Rome, Santi Giovanni e Paolo in Ferentino andSanta Maria Assunta in Anagni. The unusual shape of the ciborium canopyand its location in the interior allow us to explore several problems. First of all,in this article we will try to give a general description of this typology. We willalso look at the genesis of this form of canopy and try to find its prototypes. Thistype of ciborium is one of the small architectural forms. Its composition is veryclear and geometric. There are three factors that influenced the formation ofsuch a structure. First, the development of the local tradition, which indicatesthe existence of more ancient kivori with columns and octagonal kivori.However, ciboriums of the Early Middle Ages are quite different. Their formsare more similar to sculpture. Secondly, during this period, the influenceof Antiquity is strong. Many artists in Rome seek to imitate ancient forms.Often some elements were copied. For example, columns or beam profiles.In addition, Roman art is influenced by the image of Jerusalem. At this time,the connection between the two Christian capitals is strengthened. The formsof the ciborium resemble the image of the Edicule over the Holy Sepulchre.

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Key words: Canopy, ciborium, altar space, Rome, Middle Ages, Papal States, presbytery

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/kuznetsova-2020-en/

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Roman rite of devotio and Early Christian martyrdom: a comparative study

Andrey Vladimirovich Vasil’ev PhD in history, The Classical Gymnasium of St. Petersburg, School N 610 (Maluy prospect Petrogradskoy storonu, dom 9, corpus 6, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 197198), Ander-Vaas@yandex.ru

Vasil’ev A. V. Roman rite of devotio and Early Christian martyrdom: a comparative study, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2015, vol. 4, pp. 116–135.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2015-00007

Language: Russian

The rite of the self-devotion of a Roman together with the enemy’s army to the infernal gods for the sake of victory occurred twice in the Roman history and both times was connected with the Decii family. The religious meaning of this rite is still discussed. Some historians consider it as one of the typical vows (votum), a sort of a promise to bring the gods one’s life instead of the victory over the enemy. Others think it was a self-consecration (consecratio) of a Roman general. The author represents some contemporary interpretations of the rite. He also marks out some details that might help to comprehend this ritual as a particular and individual one and make it impossible to attribute it to one of the known types of Roman religious rites. Besides, the paper deals with some features in the ancient authors’ descriptions of this rite that draw it together with the phenomenon of the Early Christian martyrdom, well-known from the hagiographic literature and other Christian writings of the 1st–3rd  centuries. The ideas of sacrifice and glory which is attained through the sacrifice are present in the descriptions of the both forms of the death with dignity. Both phenomena can be characterized by accompanying afflatus and the transformation of the person influenced by the forthcoming voluntary death. Aristocratic character of the devotio ritual wasn’t an obstacle for the use of its image by the Christian writers. This may prove that the Early Christian community was quite familiar with the  ancient culture. Comparing two forms of self-sacrifice the author concludes that they were characterized by the common motive of the individual choice which was usual for different forms of “noble death” in antiquity.
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Key words: Rome, religion, devotio, Early Christianity, martyrdom

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/vasilev-2015-en/

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«Сonfitentium dignitas, a desertoribus et profugis recessisse»: Novatian’s schism

Alekaey Vital’evich Kargaltsev, PhD in history, senior lecturer, Theological Institute of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Ingria (der. Kolbino, 25a, Leningrad region, Vsevolozhsk district, Russia, 188680)

kargaltsev@gmail.com

Kargaltsev A. V. «Сonfitentium dignitas, a desertoribus et profugis recessisse»: Novatian’s schism, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 150–166.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00008

Language: Russian

The Novatian schism is a unique phenomenon of the early Church, because the followers of the Roman presbyter were not condemned as heretics, and the schism itself lasted for several centuries. The split arose after the persecution of Decius (249-251) as a result of the confrontation between the moderate party led by Pope Cornelius and the devotional party of the Roman community led by Novatian on the question of repentance for the apostates. The schism quickly moved beyond Italy, and Cyprian of Carthage, Dionysius of Alexandria and the bishops of other centers of the Mediterranean joined the controversy. The author it was the struggle for a martyr and a confessor, because both the rigorists and their opponents, whose authority was undermined during the persecution, sought support from the most impeccable part of the clergy and laity in the eyes of believers. Novatian’s schism comparing the nature of its origin and its driving forces could be compared to the split of the Donatists. However, the fate of these movements was different: Notatian’s follows retained the status of moderate fighters for the purity of church discipline, while donatists entered into an open confrontation with the official church. This seems to have been caused by different status of martyrs and confessors in Africa and Italy. His administrative talent of Cyprian of Carthage and his appeal to the highest authority of the local council made it possible to discredit the local rigorists and attract the confessors to his side, while Pope Cornelius’s attempts to act from the position of the authority of the Department of St. Petra failed with the Novatians split having never been overcome in Italy.
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Key words: early Christianity, Roman Empire, Cyprian of Carthage, Novatian, Pope Cornelius, Rome, Carthage, Italy, Africa

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/kargaltsev-2017-en/

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