The essence and theology of worship. The history, evaluation and theology of the Mass in the Book of Divine Services approved by the Church of Finland in 2000

Seppo Suokunnas professor (emeritus), doctor of theology University of Helsinki, Faculty of Theology (Ulrikankuja 6 B 41, Vantaa, Suomi, 01400)
sisuokunnas@elisanet.fi

Suokunnas S. Jumalanpalveluksen olemus ja teologia. Messun historiaa, arviointia ja teologiaa Suomen kirkon v. 2000 hyväksytyn Jumalanpalvelusten kirjan äärellä, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2023, vol. 12, pp. 156–178.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2023-12-156-178

Language: Russian

In the article «Jumalanpalveluksen olemus ja teologia. Messun historiaa, arviointia ja teologiaa Suomen kirkon v. 2000 hyväksytyn Jumalanpalvelusten kirjan äärellä» is analysed the reform of worship in Finland in the 1990s. The main question was what could be changed in Lutheran worship and liturgy without distorting the basic content of the faith. The task was set to make worship more free and modern and to cover national liturgical experience. During the work of the committee, various orders of Lutheran worship were analyzed and some conclusions were drawn. The author addresses these issues and gives an assessment of the liturgical reforms carried out. He considers righteousness by faith to be the main criterion for reforming liturgy, and, therefore, greater freedom of the liturgical order is achievable, which at one time was reflected in the preface to the German Mass by Martin Luther (Deutsche Messe). In addition, it is emphasized that the fundamental content of the liturgy is the doctrine of the Trinity. The article also analyzes how the Finnish Reference Book Committee has expanded the use of the Bible in worship services.

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Key words: Eucharist, liturgy, reform, Bible, righteousness, Trinity, epiclesis

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/en-suokkunas-2023/

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Numerical Symbolism in the Letter of Aristeas: influence of the Old Testament tradition

Cyrill Andreevich von Buettner PhD in History, associate professor, Saint-Petersburg State University, Philological Faculty, Department of Biblical Studies (11 Universitetskaya emb., Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
kirvonbuettner@gmail.com

Buettner C. A., von. Numerical Symbolism in the Letter of Aristeas: influence of the Old Testament tradition, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2022, vol. 11, pp. 16–31.

doi: 10.24412/2308-0698-2022-11-16-31

Language: Russian

In the article the author addresses the problem of numerical symbolism in the text of the «Letter of Aristeas», and discusses its possible Old Testament origins. This literary work is a Greek-language pseudepigraph of Jewish origin, written, according to researchers, in the 3rd century BC in Egypt, probably, in Alexandria. It contains the story about the circumstances of the Pentateuch translation into Greek by 72 elders. In this article an attempt to answer the question how the text of the «Letters of Aristeas» could have been influenced by the Old Testament numerical symbolism is made. To do this researcher considers all the contexts in which the numbers seven and twelve, which have a symbolic meaning in the biblical tradition, are used as well as numbers that are derived from seven and twelve by multiplication or division, in the cases when they by extension also have a symbolic meaning. In particular, he discusses the correlation with the usage of the symbolic numbers «7», «70», «700», «12», «6», «72» in the Jewish Old Testament tradition. The article was prompted by the recent controversy among researchers about the symbolic meaning of the number «72» (the number of translators of the Pentateuch in the text «Letters of Aristeas») and its association with the number «70» (the number of Elders — companions of Moses who were at the Theophany on Mount Sinai).

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Key words: Letter of Aristeas, numerical symbolism, Hellenistic Judaism, Bible, Old Testament

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/en-buettner-2022/

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On the theological aspect philosophical and educational project of J. A. Comenius: a view from the 21st century

Svetlana Markovna Marchukova Doctor in Pedagogy, Head of the Comeniology Section Saint-Petersburg Union of Scientists, Vice-Rector of the J. A. Comenius Research Pedagogical center, Gymnasium «Peterschule» (Zanevskiy prospekt, 53/2, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 195213)
marchukova@bk.ru

Marchukova S.M. On the theological aspect philosophical and educational project of J. A. Comenius: a view from the 21st century, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 116–153.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00014

Language: Russian

The methodological foundation of J. A. Comenius’ philosophicaland educational project often remains uncovered. The educational systemof the last bishop of the community of the Bohemian brothers, is knownfor its pragmatic orientation. It is an educational practice in which training and education are inseparable from religious experience. Man is calledto know the world and maintain order in it with the help of feeling, reasonand Revelation. This basic trichotomy of Comenius is repeatedly formulated and explained in his educational, didactic and methodological books.The early Modern Times period is the eve of the Enlightenment, whenknowledge secularized. The philosophy of Comenius — Christian pansophia, was designed to become «like a sacred ladder to ascent through allvisible things to the invisible summit of everything», seems at that period outdated and it forgotten for a long time. Contemporary researchersexplore the multidimensionality and metaphor of his works, their dialogical orientation in the context of his «biblical humanism». Surprisingly,the «biblical code» of his works helps to reveal the heuristic potentialof the theological aspect of the philosophical and educational project,which is considered today in the unity of pansophia and didactics.
The study was carried out with the financial support of the RussianFoundation for Basic Research within the framework of the scientificproject No. 19-013-00940/19 «Heuristic potential of the philosophicaland educational project of J. A. Comenius».

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Key words: pansophia, wisdom, school, humanism, Bible, physics, Melanchthon

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/marchukova-2020-en/

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On the issue of rendering the Four-Letter Name of God in Russian translations of the Old Testament texts

Cyrill Andreevich von Buettner PhD in philology, assosiate professor, Faculty of Philology Saint-Petersburg State University (Universitetskaya nabereuzhnaya, 11, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034) , kirvonbuettner@gmail.com

Buettner С., von. On the issue of rendering the Four-Letter Name of God in Russian translations of the Old Testament texts, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 374–386.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00018

Language: Russian

The article discusses the issue of rendering the four-letter name of God (YHWH) when translating the Old Testament texts into Russian. The work includes a short overview of the existing translations of the Old Testament or its particular books. The author underlines that Russian translations tend to render the name YHWH by using the equivalent of «Lord» (Gospod›). In particular, such approach is prevailing in the two full translations of the Bible: Synodal and the modern translation published by the Russian Bible Society. However, there is a special group of translations, where one can find an attempt to preserve the name YHWH in Russian as Jehovah or Yahweh. The article gives several arguments in support of the later. The use of Yahweh as rendering of God,s name is more in accord with the cultural and historical realities of the Old Testament time than the pious «Lord» substitution. Despite the fact that the word Gospod, («Lord») in the modern Russian is a given name, all of the native speakers are aware that it is connected to the common noun gospodin («master»). The Ancient Hebrew text of the Old Testament did not give the name Yahweh the meaning of «master»; the etymology of this name is not quite clear. In addition, the translations, which preserve the name Yahweh make it possible to show the reader which particular Biblical texts use this name and which ones use ˀăḏonåy «My Lord». Moreover, preservation of the name Yahweh in the text allows to also preserve the differences in rendering the combination of divine names: ˀDNY YHWH («My Lord Yahweh») and YHWH ˀLHYM («Yahweh the God»). The article includes several examples of texts, in which preservation of the name Yahweh is needed for correct interpretation (Ps 110.1; Deut 6:4–9; Ex 3:13–15).
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Key words: Bible, divine names, Bible translations, Russian Bible translations, Book of Isaiah, Servant Songs

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/buettner-2017-en/

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Concerning views of the Novgorod heretics

Grigorenko Anatoliy Yur’evich, PhD in philosophy, professor, The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Moika Embankment, dom 48, korpus 20a, St. Petersburg, Russia, 191186)

anatolygrig@gmail.com

Grigorenko Anatoliy Y. Concerning views of the Novgorod heretics, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 264–281.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00012

Language: Russian

The study of the Novgorod heresy ideology has a long history with scientists opinions being often contradictory. Therefore, the study of the treatises that have direct relevance to the heresies is of great importance. The author emamines this releavant topic, basing on the careful analises of both published and unpublished sources. The article draws attention to the little-studied works in that heretics were interested such as «The Book Selivestr». Comparison of its content with «Illuminator» by Joseph of Volokolamsk reveals not only common relevant ideas, but a number of contradictions as well. The most significant difference is when in the «Illuminator» Joseph of Volokolamsk and a anonimous heretic in his treatise «The Book Selivestr» extensively deal with the topic of the image and likeness of God, interpreting the Bible quotation «Let us make man in the image and likeness». Joseph Volokolamsk believes that it speaks of the creation of Adam and Eve. But in «The Book Selivestr» this interpretation is criticized. The author unequivocally states that the phase deals with creation of a new man, Jesus Christ. Thus, the heretics seem to understand the world and its history as the fulfillment of the God’s plan.
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Key words: Bible, hereticsIlluminator, The Book Silvestr, creationJoseph Volokolamskimage of God

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/grigorenko-2014-2-en/

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Servant Songs: Textual Witnesses

Cyrill Andreevich von Buettner Senior lecturer, Faculty of Philology Saint-Petersburg State University (Universitetskaya nabereuzhnaya, dom 11, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034), kirvonbuettner@gmail.com

Buettner С. A., von. Servant Songs: Textual Witnesses, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2015, vol. 4, pp. 314–320.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2015-00016

Language: Russian

The following article looks over the textual witnesses from the co-called Servant songs. This name is used in Bible studies to refer to four texts from the Book of Isaiah (Isa 42:1–4; 49:1–6; 50:4–9; 52:13–53:12), which according to researchers was written in the Neo-Babylonian or early Persian era (6th or 5th centuries BCE). These texts are important for the Christian tradition since theologians saw them as prophecies about the death and resurrection of Jesus (especially in the case of Isa 53). The article particularly examines the textual witnesses written in Hebrew: scrolls that were found in the 1st (1QIsaa and 1QIsab) and the 4th (4QIsab, 4QIsac, 4QIsaand 4QIsah) Qumran caves as well as the text of the medieval Masoretic Bible (MT). Furthermore, the ancient translations of the Bible from Hebrew, i. e. the Greek translation of the Septuagint, Theodotion, Aquila and Symmachus, the Aramaic translation of Targum Jonathan, the Syriac translation of the Peshitta and the Latin translation of the Vulgate are also studied. The article gives a basic description of their texts. Information about the dating of the textual witnesses, the level of preservation,  most important manuscripts, critical editions of the text as well as a list of the major publications regarding the description of these sources are also given in the article.
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Key words: Bible, Book of Isaiah, Servant Songs

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/buettner-2015-en/

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Lutheran preaching and drama: an attempt at a comparative typology

Zinaida Andreevna Lurie PhD-student, Institute of History, Saint-Petersburg State University (Mendeleevskaya linia, dom 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034), z.lurie@spbu.ru; zlourie@gmail.com

Lurie Z. A. Lutheran preaching and drama: an attempt at  a comparative typology , Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2015, vol. 4, pp. 234–249.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2015-00011

Language: Russian

The article deals with formal and thematic peculiarities of the Lutheran sermon in its evolution as a prototype of other didactic genres. Biblical drama that appeared soon after the Reformation as  independent and prevailing type of dramatic works was in many aspect a rhetorical genre. That allows to make a consistent comparison between sermon and drama in the early Lutheran tradition. The author shows that thematically both literature genres were aimed at preaching of Law and Gospel. Ethical, political and social problems (ordo ecclesiasticusordo politiciis, ordo oeconomicus) composed an important part of confession didactic, especially, in Melanchton interpretation. However, they were valuable only in the light of Apocalyptical consciousness. All loci that were typical for the Lutheran sermon and, for example, were named by Melanchton in the Augsburg confession of 1531, also appear in dramatic works. Speaking of formal features, logic and structure, biblical drama seem to be orientated as well on the rhetorical model of Melanchton (epitrepticumparaeneticum and genus didascalicum) that fit the homiletical aims. All this make possible with more certainty to speak about Biblical drama as a part of phenomenological confessional model, reflected mainly in Luther Biblical translation and commentary.
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Key words: Melanchthon, Luther, confessionalisation, the Bible, Sixt Birck, Joachim Greff, Paul Rebhun, Tomas Naogeorgus, preaching, sermons, drama, theater

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/lurie-2015-en/

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