Sergey Sergeevich Lazarev Master Student, Saint-Petersburg State University, Institute of History, (Mendeleevskaya liniya, 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 199034)
Lazarev S.S. William of Pagula and Ideas on the Sacrament of the Eucharist, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 16–31.
The liturgical activities of parish clergy have traditionally focusedon church services. Only at the turn of the 11–12th centuries, medievalintellectuals began to make works that were designed specifically to helpthe parish priests. In the 14th century, pastoral leadership for priests wereinstructions and treatises in Latin, such as «The Priest’s Eye» by Williamof Pagula. The work of William of Pagula during the late Middle Agesremained the most popular pastoral manual to the duties and servicesof the parish clergy. It was of exceptional importance as a pastoral manualto the conduct of confession, especially in term of interrogation, forgivenessof sins and choice of punishment for the penitent. In addition, this manualcontained a fairly complete and simple instruction to medieval Englishman on the sacrament of the Eucharist. An explanation of the sacramentof the Eucharist was required so that parish priests could fix the practiceof communion with only bread in mental attitudes of parishioners, whichbegan to be applied from the 12th century. Nevertheless, the new practiceof communing the laity under one kind, and the clergy under both arouseddiscontent among some of the parishioners, which served as one of the catalysts for the emergence of reformist movements. The Catholic Churchfinally confirmed the church custom of the communion of the laity underone kind only in the 16th century at the Council of Trent.