Сriticism of Рossibility of Natural Theology in William Ames’ «Disputatio theologica adversus ethicam» (Preface to the publication)

Rodion Valentinovich Savinov PhD in Philosophy, associate professor, Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (ulitsa Chernigovskaya, 5, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 196084)
savrodion@yandex.ru

Savinov R.V. Сriticism of Рossibility of Natural Theology in William Ames’ «Disputatio theologica adversus ethicam» (Preface to the publication), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 394–424.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2020-00020

Language: Russian

The article analyses English Puritan theologian William Ames’«Disputatio theologica adversus ethicam» which contains criticismof Early Modern theology, in particular, the possibility of building ethicsindependent of both biblical Revelation and religious sources. RabbinicalJudaism and Catholicism are considered by William Ames as representativesof the concept of «traditions», socially established forms of religiosity. Amesseeks to show that these forms of worship are untrue, for they supplementthe biblical command with historically emerged customs, thereby violatingthe principle of sola Scriptura. The second mode of non-religious piety isrepresented by philosophical ethics, in particular, the Aristotle’s moraldoctrine, which was the basis of the ethical teachings of the Early ModernTimes, both Catholic and Protestant. The rationalism of Aristotelian ethicsand its immanent point of view to human morality are considered by Ames asa violation of the principle of sola fide, because ethics is based on the independentnature of man, which makes the principles of Revelation unnecessary. Amesconsiders biblical moral theology (the so-called Ethica Christiana) an alternativefor Scholasticism, which, on the one hand, integrates the basic principlesof philosophical ethics (the concept and varieties of virtues), and, on the otherhand, is based on the theological principle of holiness as the goal of human lifein the eyes of God (coram Deo). Thus, the theology of William Ames became analternative to the scholastic understanding of ethics and theology, and served asthe basis for new forms of describing religious experience in Puritanism of the17th century

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Key words: Reformation, Ethics, Theology, Puritanism, William Ames, Early Modern

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/savinov-2020-en/

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Philosophy and Theology in early Puritanism: William Ames’ Criticism of Metaphysic

Rodion Valentinovich Savinov PhD in Philosophy, senior lecturer, Saint-Petersburg State Academy of Veterinary Medicine (Ulitsa Chernigovskaya, 5, St. Petersburg, Russia, 196084)
savrodion@yandex.ru

Savinov R. V. Philosophy and Theology in early Puritanism: William Ames’ Criticism of Metaphysic, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2019, vol. 8, pp. 380–404.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2019-00018

Language: Russian

The article discusses the content of the «Theological Disputation against Metaphysics» by William Ames, one of the creators of Puritan theology. It is shown that Ames’ disputation against metaphysics and the line of his argumentation, firstly, goes back to  the scholastic discussions about the content of Corpus Aristotelicum, and secondly, is rooted in the criticism of secular knowledge that was given by the Reformers (Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon and others). Besides, it was a moment in the confessional debate with the project of the Catholic «natural theology», presented by Suarez’s treatises. At last, it substantiates a new understanding of human activity, associated primarily with the practical, rather than contemplating meaning of human life that reflects the characteristic of the Post-Reformation culture.

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Key words: Reformation, Metaphysics, Theology, Puritanism, Discussions, Early Modern

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/en/savinov-2019-en/

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Theological course of Sylvester Kulabka at the Kiyv-Mohyla Academy (1741–1745) and influence of the Lutheran scholastics

Konstantin Vladimirovich Sutorius PhD in History, Higher School of Economics (naberezhnaya kanala Griboedova, 123, Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 190008)
sutorius@mail.ru

Sutorius K. V. Theological course of Sylvester Kulabka at the Kiyv-Mohyla Academy (1741–1745) and influence of the Lutheran scholastics, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 260–283.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00013

Language: Russian

Courses of theology, which were taught in Kiyv-Mohyla College/Academy, are more or less compilations. Parts of theological course, which Sylvester Kulabka taught in 1739–45, are not an exception. What was special, was that Kulabka as a teacher of theology closely followed his sources. Kulabka taught parts of the second half of theological course in 1739–41 and then the whole course in 1741–45. For second half of that course (1743–45) Kulabka used his lectures taught in 1739–41. The latter in turn were based on the second half of theological course, which was taught in Kiyv academy by Joseph Wolczanskj in 1721–25. The part about the law of God, which was taught by Kulabka in academic year 1743/44 and which is not found neither in the first course (1739–41) nor in the course of Wolczanskj, was based on one part of theological course by Hilario Lievicki in 1725–29. Kulabka considerably changed the design of parts of the theological course, which he taught in 1743/44, and added some chapters not present in his lectures of 1739/40. These changes seem to have been influenced by the manual of Lutheran theologian Mattias Hafenreffer.

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Key words: theology, manuscripts, Mattias Hafenreffer, Lutheran scholastics, Jesuits

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/sutorius-2018-en/

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Oscillations of love. Relationship of Law and Gospel in the context of the theology of the process (on the example of the theology of Katherine Keller)

Anton Vladimirovich Tihomirov Doctor in theology, Theological seminary of the Evangelical-Lutheran hurch (derevnya Novosaratovka, 140, Leningradskaya oblast’, Russia, 193149)
tikhomirov@live.com

Tihomirov A. V. Oscillations of love. Relationship of Law and Gospel in the context of the theology of the process (on the example of the theology of Katherine Keller), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2018, vol. 7, pp. 18–43.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2018-00002

Language: Russian

The author examines the basic principles of the modern theology of the process inspired by the philosophy of the process of Alfred Whitehead. It is studied on the example of theology of a prominent representative of this trend, our contemporary Katherine Keller. In process theology, the world and God are understood as being in constant interaction that finally remains open. It openly denies the omnipotence of God. In relations with the world, He can act as a suffering and receiving power. The main focus of Keller’s analysis of creativity is the consideration of the dialectic of Eros, as the inspiring and impelling power of God, and Agape, as God’s saving mercy. At the same time, the author analyzes this pair of concepts in the context of the relationship between Law and Gospel in classical Lutheran theology. The author shows that, although some representatives of the theology of the process understand the relationship of Eros and Agape as a reflection of Luther’s distinction between Law and Gospel, it is still difficult to find a direct correspondence between these pairs of concepts. In Luther’s understanding, Law is opposed to Gospel, while Eros and Agape in the theology of the process complement each other and strive to complete fusion. It is noted, however, that Keller does not openly refer to Luther and does not argue with him, focusing her criticism on the teachings of Jean Calvin. Nevertheless, the author emphasizes that the ideas developed in the framework of the theology of the process can have a consoling character in the face of questions and doubts of a modern man, i.e. under certain conditions, to fulfill a purpose similar to the aime of the Martin Luther’s distinction between Law and Gospel.

Key words: Calvin, Luther, Agape, Eros, Theology, God

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/tihomirov-2018-en/

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On the question of several religious terms

Anatoliy Kirillovich Pogasiy, PhD in history, professor, Kazan Institute, Eastern Academy of Economics, Law and Humanities (ulica Jurnalistov, dom 6a, Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, 420029)
kazan_prihod@mail.ru

Pogasiy A. K. On the question of several religious terms, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 35–49.

DOI: 10.24411/2308-0698-2012-00007

Language: Russian

Specifics of religious terminology is that it is called in the field of human consciousness and the world comprehended by human intelligence to fix concepts phenomenal that can’t be realized by human reason. The article is devoted to a problem of interpretation of some Christian terms.

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Key words: religion, Christianity, term, theology, Church

Permanent link: http://rcs-almanac.ru/pogasiy-a-k-2012-en/

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Review of the monography by V. A. Bachinin «Europeamn Reformation as spiritual war» (Kiev, 2017)

Sergey Aleksandrovich Isaev PhD in history, senior researcher, Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of History (Petrozavodskaya ulitsa, 7, Saint-Petersburg, 197110) , isayevsviir@yandex.ru

Isaev S. A. Review on the monography by V. A. Bachinin «European Reformation as spiritual war» (Kiev, 2017), Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2017, vol. 6, pp. 406–417.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2017-00020

Language: Russian

The book is considered as a product of culturological scholarship created by Russian Calvinist. Vladislav Bachinin is sure that the Roman Catholic Church in the late medieval Europe was infected by Renaissance ideas — paganistic and anti-Christian. According to Bachinin, the Reformation saved the European Christianity from this threat. The main savior, according to Bachinin, was John Calvin. Martin Luther is considered as the great «pathfinder» of Reformation and harbinger of Calvin.

Key words: Luther, Calvin, Jan Huss, theology, culture, Calvinism, Europe

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/isaev-2017-en/

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Master programm “Religion and Legal studies“

Pogasiy Anatoliy Kirillovich, PhD, professor, Kazan institute, East Economic-legal Humanitarian Academy (Kazan, Russia), kazan_prihod@mail.ru

Pogasiiy A. K. Master programm “Religion and Legal studies“, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 337–340.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00024

Language: Russian

The textbook “Fundamentals of confessional knowledge” released in 2013 seems to help students and scholars to explore a relatively new discipline for Russia — the science of religion. Number of allowances issued each year in religious studies, unfortunately, is not large, so each of them calls attention of specialists on the subject. Appreciating the very need for a such work, it should be noted that this book contents a big number of errors and typos that may mislead the reader on the key provisions of the various Christian denominations. The stated purpose of publishing — structuralisation of scientific apparatus is not only failed, but, on the contrary, instead of scientific apparatus the reader is faced with multiple speculation. Besides, the work can’t be call an original one, and it is difficult to say to what extent one can speak about the intellectual participation of the authors in the creating of the textbook. The review analyses text of the student book and examines some semantic structures. The author also concentrates on the reasons that led to publishing of such unqualified texts. The student book was written by a sport teacher and reviewed by a philosopher, while the chair of religious studies (Kazan Federal University) wasn’t attached to the process.
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Key words: religious studies, theology, confessions

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/pogasiiy-2014-2-en/

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Review on: Mustaev R. Sh., Salihov N. R. Osnovyi konfessionalnyih znaniy: Uchebnoe posobie [Fundamentals of confessional knowledge: Textbook], Kazan: 2013

Pogasiy Anatoliy Kirillovich, PhD, professor, Kazan institute, East Economic-legal Humanitarian Academy (Kazan, Russia), kazan_prihod@mail.ru

Pogasiiy A. K. Review on: Mustaev R. Sh., Salihov N. R. Osnovyi konfessionalnyih znaniy: Uchebnoe posobie [Fundamentals of confessional knowledge: Textbook], Kazan: 2013, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 337–340.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00019

Language: Russian

he textbook “Fundamentals of confessional knowledge” released in 2013 seems to help students and scholars to explore a relatively new discipline for Russia — the science of religion. Number of allowances issued each year in religious studies, unfortunately, is not large, so each of them calls attention of specialists on the subject. Appreciating the very need for a such work, it should be noted that this book contents a big number of errors and typos that may mislead the reader on the key provisions of the various Christian denominations. The stated purpose of publishing — structuralisation of scientific apparatus is not only failed, but, on the contrary, instead of scientific apparatus the reader is faced with multiple speculation. Besides, the work can’t be call an original one, and it is difficult to say to what extent one can speak about the intellectual participation of the authors in the creating of the textbook. The review analyses text of the student book and examines some semantic structures. The author also concentrates on the reasons that led to publishing of such unqualified texts. The student book was written by a sport teacher and reviewed by a philosopher, while the chair of religious studies (Kazan Federal University) wasn’t attached to the process.
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Key words: religious studies, theology, confessions

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/pogasiiy-2014-en/

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Manuscripts of theological lectures by Sylvester Kulabka in the Kyiv-Mohila academy 1739–1745

Sutorius Konstantin Vladimirovich, PhD, lector, Institute of Foreign Languages (Saint-Petersburg, Russia), sutorius@mail.ru

Sutorius K. V. Manuscripts of theological lectures by Sylvester Kulabka in the Kyiv-Mohila academy 1739–1745, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2014, vol. 3, pp. 337–340.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2014-00018

Language: Russian

Sylvester Kulabka taught theology in the Kyiv-Mohyla academy from 1739/40 to 1744/5. His lectures aren’t yet published as almost all other theological courses which were taught there. Kulabka`s lectures are found in manuscripts, which are stored in libraries, archives and museums in the Ukraine and Russia. Description of all known manuscripts, which contain lectures, may be the first step on the way to prepare the publication of Kulabka`s lectures. Kulabka taught theology for six years, and lectures of these years are witnessed differently in known manuscripts. We found in St. Petersburg 6 manuscripts, 4 in Kyiv, 2 in Moscow, 1 in Kazan and 1 in Tver 1. Lectures of 1739/40 are contained in 4 manuscripts, of 1740/1 in 5, of 1741/2, 1742/3 and 1743/4 in 6, of 1744/5 only in 2. Two of these manuscripts have a handwriting, which looks very similar to that of Kulabka. Comparing information from manuscripts with other sources on the history of Kyiv academy we can see that most part of these manuscripts had been written by students of Kulabka. There are reasons to distinguish between manuscripts and records of lectures, because one manuscript (one binding) can contain parts of various records, which were taken by various students, and one record made by the same student can be contained in various manuscripts (bindings). Thus we can sort out 13 records. Lectures of 1743–1735 were entitled Theologicae scientiae summa and they are considered usually as a separate course, but both contents of these lectures and theological courses which were taught before and after Kulabka`s lectures, signify that lectures of 1743–1735 make up the second part of quadrennial course, which began in 1741/2.
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Key words: Kiev-Mohyla Academy, theology, Silvester Kulabko, manuscripts

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/sutorius-2014-en/

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Fake pearl: Chants of Paul Gerhardt in Russian translation

Anton Vladimirovich Tihomirov, Doctor in theology, Theological seminary of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church (derevnya Novosaratovka, 140, Leningrad region, Russia, 193149) tikhomirov@live.com

Tihomirov A. V. Fake pearl: Chants of Paul Gerhardt in Russian translation, Religiya. Tserkov’. Obshchestvo. Issledovaniya i publikatsii po teologii i religii [Religion. Church. Society: Research and publications in the field of theology and religious studies], Saint-Petersburg, 2016, vol. 5, pp. 298–313.

doi: 10.24411/2308-0698-2016-00015

Language: Russian

The article is a cut Russian translation of the report, read 05. 27. 2016 in  Lübeck at the conference «Paul Gerhard in the Baltic area». The text examines the translations of the Gerhardt’s hymns exclusively within the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Paul Gerhard (1607–1676) was the greatest poet in the history of Lutheranism, who wrote a variety of traditional Lutheran hymns, which latterly inspired work of J. S. Bach. Many Paul Gerhard’s chants sound today on worship of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Russia both in the original language and in the Russian translation. This publication analyzes the texts of Russian translations of hymns, which were included in the official collection of hymns of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Despite their quantity, translations of chorales don’t correspond much with the German original. This is partly because of poor language knowledge (especially in 1990s, when within the period of revival of the Lutheran liturgical life translations were prepared in a hurry) and partly because of the lack of theologically educated compilers. Trying to give more «spiritual depth», translators actually changed specific terms or even whole lines that distorted texts and vulgarized their meaning. The author notes, that the intentional desire to replace complicated poetics by banal pious rythms, is an attempt to make chants more understandable and simple for broad audience. The author comes to the conclusion that, although without hymns of Paul Gerhardt it is impossible to imagine the Lutheran service in Russia, translations do not correspond to the original texts. The great German poet and spiritual Church leader still awaits his translator.
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Key words: hymns, psalms, German, theology, vulgarization, spirituality

URL: http://rcs-almanac.ru/tihomirov-a-v-2016-en/

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